Knowledge

The Dragon's Glassory: A glossary of glass terms.
 
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a (alpha): See "Thermal Coeeficient of Expansion."
Acid Etched: A name registered to a type of Art Glass, made of two layers and two colors of cased glass. Made in the US by Frederick Cader, c 1932.
Acid Etching: The process of etching glass with hydrofluoric acid or ammonium fluoride, stencils and resist of wax or some greasy substance was developed during the 1870s in American Glass Houses. Decorative designs are made by cutting or eating the glass away.
Acid Polishing: The use of a hydrofluoric acid bath to polish glass.
A Cordeline: See Vitro di trina.
Accomac Cut: 1880s to 1890s pattern of popular cut glass.
Acorn: Pattern of pressed glass with an acorn pattern on the ribbing.
Acute Angles: Angles that are less than 90 degrees, and can affect seals.
Adams & Company Glass: A Pittsburgh made pressed glass from 1851, to some forms as late as the 1890s. Noted patterns were:
  • Baltimore Pear (Fig till approx. 1887 or Gypsy)
  • Daisy and Button (with thumb print)
  • Hidalgo
  • Hobnail with Fan
  • Moon and Star
  • Thousand Eye
  • Wildflower
Advertising Ware: Glass that advertises its maker, the art of a glass, or a line of glass.
Aetna Glass: See Johnson Glass Works.
Agata Glass: A glass characterized by its mottle look. The technique drizzled volatile liquids onto the glass before refiring. Clear glass and some Amberina glass used this finishing technique.
Agate Glass: A glass made at the Pittsburgh, Sandwich factories, and few few other places, it was made from 1850 through 1900s. Blast furnace slag (a form of glass) was mixed with glass to produce of chocolates, caramels, agates and leathers. It was often variegated and with striations of milk glass tints.
Air Ring: The elongated inclusion of air the encircles a paperweight by the base, often above and below a torsade.
Air Twists: A stem type from the 18th century. Air is trapped as longitudinal channels, it is drawn out in a process of elongation and twisting the mass of glass.
Alabaster Glass: Glass made by James Lloyd at the Sandwich Glass Works, considered an fine imitation of alabaster ware..
Alabastron: Greek.A small flask or bottle for perfumes and oils. Appearance often having flat lips, thin neck, cylindrical bodies, and two small side handles.
Albany Glass: A noted glass factory in Albany, N.Y., first established in the 1780s. Production included:
  • bottles
  • carboys
  • jars
  • window glass
Almond: Or Pointed Thumb Print. A pressed glass with hollowed facets likened to a thumb print having pointed facets.
Almorrata: A Early Spanish glass where vessels have a narrow base and loops to hang, sporting a big central neck and four tapered spouts on the belly.
Alte Schweiss: Literal for "Old Swiss." Reference to early enameled, bi-colored, or decorated glass.
Alumnia Hydrate: Al2 O3 Common crystalline compound used as abrasive and refractories.
Aluminoborosiclicate: SiO2, Al2O3, CaO and B2O3 A glass that is highly resistant to chemical corrosion.
Amberina: Also called partially colored glass. Dates from 1833 and patented in 1883 for the New England Glass Company of East Cambridge, Mass., and made through the 1890s by its successor, the Libbey Glass Company of Ohio. Manufactured also under the name rose amber in New Bedford, Mass. This blended-color glass is characterized by the lower part of a piece colored a yellowish amber color that merges into a ruby-red color up higher on the work, blending from dark to light. A wide range of table and ornamental wares with diamond designs or swirled ribbing was produced with Amberina glass.
Amber Slag: Milk white glass having streaks of caf³ au lait and chocolate swirls.
Amelung Glass: A soda lime glass, non lead glass with smoky or greenish tones that is engraved and cut with Bohemian and German patterns. John F. Amelung from Bremen, Germany helped start the German Company open a glass house in the United States. at New Bremen, MD.
American Flint Glass Works: Glass works of the Southwick & Co., in Wheeling, Va., dating from the 1840s. Known for its blown mold and pressed glass, flint and colored glass. Production included:
  • blown mold
  • blown flint
  • colored glass
  • pressed glass
American System: Reference to flask that mold blown, having the slogan "American System." A commemoration over tariffs to prevent British goods dumping in the United States.
Amphoriskos: Greek.Toiletry flask often with an appearance of inverted pear shape usually tapered to point or button foots.
Angelic Cut: Cut glass pattern of the 1880s.
Animal Dishes: Pressed covered glass dishes with animal forms.
Animal Dishes: Pressed covered glass dishes with animal forms.
Animal Headed Glass: Pressed glass with lids having shapes of animal heads, or having knobs with animal heads (usually frosted) or full figures.
Animal Headed Glass: Pressed glass with lids having shapes of animal heads, or having knobs with animal heads (usually frosted) or full figures.
Animalistic Glass: Animals characterized in glass.
Animalistic Glass: Animals characterized in glass.
Anthemion: Greek, stands for honeysuckle. Pressed glass pattern having a honeysuckle flower on a stippled background.
Anthemion: Greek, stands for honeysuckle. Pressed glass pattern having a honeysuckle flower on a stippled background.
Anneal: The controlled cooling of hot glass to remove stress.
Anneal: The controlled cooling of hot glass to remove stress.
Anneal Cool: The point where glass has cooled through the annealing soak temperature to its strain point. It is important that the cooling rate is slow so residual stress does not mature.
Anneal Cool: The point where glass has cooled through the annealing soak temperature to its strain point. It is important that the cooling rate is slow so residual stress does not mature.
Annealer: The insulated structure for annealing glass.
Annealer: The insulated structure for annealing glass.
Annealer Face: A impression made onto a piece of glass from the annealer surfaces. It can be caused when a piece is placed in the annealer while too hot, or the annealer temperature is set too high.
Annealer Face: A impression made onto a piece of glass from the annealer surfaces. It can be caused when a piece is placed in the annealer while too hot, or the annealer temperature is set too high.
Annealing: The process of controlled gradual cooling of an object after a hot-working process, so the the thicker and thinner parts cool at the same rate. The annealing process prevents the development of stresses that damage glass, toughening it. Annealing is done in a oven or Lehr and allows a uniform cooling rate for varying thickness of parts of an object. Done in stages: the anneal soak and anneal cool.
Annealing: The process of controlled gradual cooling of an object after a hot-working process, so the the thicker and thinner parts cool at the same rate. The annealing process prevents the development of stresses that damage glass, toughening it. Annealing is done in a oven or Lehr and allows a uniform cooling rate for varying thickness of parts of an object. Done in stages: the anneal soak and anneal cool.
Annealing Chamber or Oven: See lehr.
Annealing Chamber or Oven: See lehr.
Annealing Point: The temperature of about 35 to 40 degrees F. overt the strain point where internal stress in glass is quickly reduced.
Annealing Point: The temperature of about 35 to 40 degrees F. overt the strain point where internal stress in glass is quickly reduced.
Annealing Range: The range of temperature for annealing an object. This range varies upon the composition of the object. It exist from above the strain point to the anneal soak temperature.
Annealing Range: The range of temperature for annealing an object. This range varies upon the composition of the object. It exist from above the strain point to the anneal soak temperature.
Annealing Soak: Stage of cooling that is held constant allowing stress in glass to stabilize.
Annealing Soak: Stage of cooling that is held constant allowing stress in glass to stabilize.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute. The organization that sets safety standards for industrial equipment. The organization that sets the standard of measuring the properties of different materials, including glass.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute. The organization that sets safety standards for industrial equipment. The organization that sets the standard of measuring the properties of different materials, including glass.
Annular: A disk bead with a relatively large opening.
Annular: A disk bead with a relatively large opening.
Apple Green: Ideally means a clear pale green.
Apple Green: Ideally means a clear pale green.
Applied Handles: Pressed glass. Prior to 1865, handles were attached as hot rods that were crimped on. In 1865 a special pressing technique was perfected for attaching handles.
Applied Handles: Pressed glass. Prior to 1865, handles were attached as hot rods that were crimped on. In 1865 a special pressing technique was perfected for attaching handles.
Applied Stem: See stuck stem.
Applied Stem: See stuck stem.
Aquadag: Graphite powder in a colloidal suspension that is used for mold release and to resurface tools for forming glass.
Aquadag: Graphite powder in a colloidal suspension that is used for mold release and to resurface tools for forming glass.
Arabesque: Bakewell of Pittsburgh pattern of pressed glass having bands of dotted loops with an overall look as stippled and dotted keyholes.
Arabesque: Bakewell of Pittsburgh pattern of pressed glass having bands of dotted loops with an overall look as stippled and dotted keyholes.
Arbitration Mug: Beer mugs having the figures of employers and labor shaking hands pressed into the handles.
Arbitration Mug: Beer mugs having the figures of employers and labor shaking hands pressed into the handles.
A retortoli: See lattimo.
A retortoli: See lattimo.
Argus: Bakewell of Pittsburgh produced this pressed glass pattern with big vertical thumb prints, like Ashburton, or big ovals.
Argus: Bakewell of Pittsburgh produced this pressed glass pattern with big vertical thumb prints, like Ashburton, or big ovals.
Arrow Cane: Also called Crow's-foot. A section of millefiori created from rods having a three pronged arrow configuration.
Arrow Cane: Also called Crow's-foot. A section of millefiori created from rods having a three pronged arrow configuration.
Aryballos: Greek A globular shaped toiletry flask with side handles.
Aryballos: Greek A globular shaped toiletry flask with side handles.
Asbestos: A form of hydrated magnesium silicate the is fibrous and fireproof. Gloves made of it are resistant to extreme heat associated with glass working.
Asbestos: A form of hydrated magnesium silicate the is fibrous and fireproof. Gloves made of it are resistant to extreme heat associated with glass working.
Ashburton: An early glass pattern beginning in the mid 1830s, described with big curvate thumb print panels. The pattern was later called Colonial, and still is produced with modern techniques.
Ashburton: An early glass pattern beginning in the mid 1830s, described with big curvate thumb print panels. The pattern was later called Colonial, and still is produced with modern techniques.
Aspirator: A device for making a vacuum, powered by attaching to a water faucet.
Aspirator: A device for making a vacuum, powered by attaching to a water faucet.
Atlantic Glass: A little glass furnace in Crowleytown, N.J..
Atlantic Glass: A little glass furnace in Crowleytown, N.J..
Atmosphere: Condition of air in a kiln which can vary from oxidation (excess oxygen) to neutral to reduction (deficient of oxygen). In lampworking it refers the conditions that exist in a torch flame. An "oxidizing" atmosphere is high in oxygen. A "reducing" atmosphere is low in oxygen and often softer and cooler. A reducing atmosphere can discolor glass.
Atmosphere: Condition of air in a kiln which can vary from oxidation (excess oxygen) to neutral to reduction (deficient of oxygen). In lampworking it refers the conditions that exist in a torch flame. An "oxidizing" atmosphere is high in oxygen. A "reducing" atmosphere is low in oxygen and often softer and cooler. A reducing atmosphere can discolor glass.
Attachment Seal: Also called a side arm seal. A method of attaching a glass piece to the main body.
Attachment Seal: Also called a side arm seal. A method of attaching a glass piece to the main body.
At the fire: Reheating and reworking glass with additional blowing into larger or new shapes. Also, reheating glass at the glory hole.
At the fire: Reheating and reworking glass with additional blowing into larger or new shapes. Also, reheating glass at the glory hole.
Aventurine: Italian for "by accident," also called goldstone. A colored glass with gold flakes of the 15th century. Also, in the 17th century crystals of copper provided a lustrous sheen, a method of super-saturating a batch of glass with copper and the copper crystallizes out.
Aventurine: Italian for "by accident," also called goldstone. A colored glass with gold flakes of the 15th century. Also, in the 17th century crystals of copper provided a lustrous sheen, a method of super-saturating a batch of glass with copper and the copper crystallizes out.
Avoleo: A piece of glass that connects one piece of glass to another. Often it is used in making goblets, connecting the bowl to the stem, or the stem to the foot.
Avoleo: A piece of glass that connects one piece of glass to another. Often it is used in making goblets, connecting the bowl to the stem, or the stem to the foot.
Axis: The line of center when rotating a glass rod.
Axis: The line of center when rotating a glass rod.
Ayotte, Rick: Know as the "bird man" of glass with regards to his paperweights. Ayotte worked as a scientific glassblowers in Nashua and started his own business in 1970, Ayotte's Artistry in Glass which made hollow glassware gifts and solid crystal. In 1978 Ayotte Weishts came onto the market.
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Baby Beaker: Little glass jiggers for spirits.
Baby Face: Press glass pattern with forms of Lion and Three Face. Variants had the frosted faces of three cherubim.
Baby Face: Press glass pattern with forms of Lion and Three Face. Variants had the frosted faces of three cherubim.
Baccarat: Glassware first produced in Baccarat, France, at a glass manufacturing house of Compagnie des Cristalleries founded in 1764 or 1765 under the name Verrerie de Sainte, by Monseigneur de Montmorncy-Laval, Bishop of Metz; acquired by a Belgian manufacturer in 1817. Baccarat was among some of the best cut glass made in Europe in the 1800s. Helped shape the Art Deco style after being displayed at a 1925 Paris exposition. The company is now Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat. Production included: Blown glass Lead glass Pressed glass Blown molded glass Paperweights
Baccarat: Glassware first produced in Baccarat, France, at a glass manufacturing house of Compagnie des Cristalleries founded in 1764 or 1765 under the name Verrerie de Sainte, by Monseigneur de Montmorncy-Laval, Bishop of Metz; acquired by a Belgian manufacturer in 1817. Baccarat was among some of the best cut glass made in Europe in the 1800s. Helped shape the Art Deco style after being displayed at a 1925 Paris exposition. The company is now Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat. Production included: Blown glass Lead glass Pressed glass Blown molded glass Paperweights
Bacchus Glass: The Birmingham, England factory: Bucchus, Green & Green of the Union Glass Works was started in 1818. In 1833 it became the George Bacchus & Co.. In 1841, the year after the death of Bacchus, it became George Bacchus & Sons. In 1858 it became Bacchus & Sons. Production included: domestic glassware paperweights plate glass Venetian style glass
Bacchus Glass: The Birmingham, England factory: Bucchus, Green & Green of the Union Glass Works was started in 1818. In 1833 it became the George Bacchus & Co.. In 1841, the year after the death of Bacchus, it became George Bacchus & Sons. In 1858 it became Bacchus & Sons. Production included: domestic glassware paperweights plate glass Venetian style glass
Bagot, Joseph: New York City glass cutter of the 1810s.
Bagot, Joseph: New York City glass cutter of the 1810s.
Bakewell Glass: A Pittsburgh glass factory that was set up by Benjamin Bakewell, is considered one of the great glass factories of the United States. Production included: Pressed glass Molded glass Cut glass
Bakewell Glass: A Pittsburgh glass factory that was set up by Benjamin Bakewell, is considered one of the great glass factories of the United States. Production included: Pressed glass Molded glass Cut glass
Ball and Swirl: Pressed glass with rows of balls for base lines, edges and having swirled footing and covers.
Ball and Swirl: Pressed glass with rows of balls for base lines, edges and having swirled footing and covers.
Ball Covers: Big blown glass balls that were reputed as being used as milk bowl covers.
Ball Covers: Big blown glass balls that were reputed as being used as milk bowl covers.
Balloon: A pressed glass pattern showing the flight of a balloon, found on some sugar bowl. It dates from about 1870s, possibly from Ohio, Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, or maybe Boston.
Balloon: A pressed glass pattern showing the flight of a balloon, found on some sugar bowl. It dates from about 1870s, possibly from Ohio, Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, or maybe Boston.
Balsam Bottle: Glass bottles, that instead of a ground neck stoppers, feature an overturned cup shaped lid that sits over the neck onto the shoulder of the bottle. Some cup and shoulder of bottle may be ground for a better fit.
Balsam Bottle: Glass bottles, that instead of a ground neck stoppers, feature an overturned cup shaped lid that sits over the neck onto the shoulder of the bottle. Some cup and shoulder of bottle may be ground for a better fit.
Baltimore Flint Glass Co.: A flint glass manufacture founded in 1820 at Baltimore, Md., that operated to the 1840s or 50s.
Baltimore Flint Glass Co.: A flint glass manufacture founded in 1820 at Baltimore, Md., that operated to the 1840s or 50s.
Baltimore Glass: Glass of the Maryland Glass Works at Baltimore that made bottled and flasks from 1850, they were a noted exhibitioner at the London Crystal Palace Exposition in 1851.
Baltimore Glass: Glass of the Maryland Glass Works at Baltimore that made bottled and flasks from 1850, they were a noted exhibitioner at the London Crystal Palace Exposition in 1851.
Baltimore Glass Works: The noted glass works was started by Frederick Amelung, and others, in 1799. The plant carried on, under different management and owners, until the 1900s. Production included: Bottles Flask Druggist glass Window glass
Baltimore Glass Works: The noted glass works was started by Frederick Amelung, and others, in 1799. The plant carried on, under different management and owners, until the 1900s. Production included: Bottles Flask Druggist glass Window glass
Baltimore Pear: A pressed glass pattern, of the 1880s, that sported a pair of figs on a fig leaf, and war originally named Fig.
Baltimore Pear: A pressed glass pattern, of the 1880s, that sported a pair of figs on a fig leaf, and war originally named Fig.
Baluster Stem: Balustra, meaning the flower of a pomegranate. A form of stem of English drinking glasses, adapted from pillars of staircase handrails, having nicely formed corolla tubes. The term is carried over to other crafts such as candle sticks and wood turning, etc..
Baluster Stem: Balustra, meaning the flower of a pomegranate. A form of stem of English drinking glasses, adapted from pillars of staircase handrails, having nicely formed corolla tubes. The term is carried over to other crafts such as candle sticks and wood turning, etc..
Bamper Glass: The Bamper Glass Works, sometimes referred to as "Bamper Hant," was started by the wealthy Dutch merchant, Loderwyk Bamper, and others, in 1754. It is assumed that the glass produced was done in the Dutch traditions.
Bamper Glass: The Bamper Glass Works, sometimes referred to as "Bamper Hant," was started by the wealthy Dutch merchant, Loderwyk Bamper, and others, in 1754. It is assumed that the glass produced was done in the Dutch traditions.
Band: A band, dated around the 1870s, that decorated varieties of Ashburton, that had a big thumb print with crisscross or ticktacktoe bands.
Band: A band, dated around the 1870s, that decorated varieties of Ashburton, that had a big thumb print with crisscross or ticktacktoe bands.
Banded: Pressed glass patterns having stippled bands.
Banded: Pressed glass patterns having stippled bands.
Barilla: A plant from salt marshes of Alicante, Spain, and other areas of the Mediterranean. Burning the bushes is the source of soda ash for glass making, in the 15th and 16th centuries, in Europe and England.
Barilla: A plant from salt marshes of Alicante, Spain, and other areas of the Mediterranean. Burning the bushes is the source of soda ash for glass making, in the 15th and 16th centuries, in Europe and England.
Bar Lip: A feature of bottles designed for heavy service, having a thick, heavy ringed lip. Found often on many 19th century glass, particularly on pressed and blown decanter.
Bar Lip: A feature of bottles designed for heavy service, having a thick, heavy ringed lip. Found often on many 19th century glass, particularly on pressed and blown decanter.
Bar Windows: Windows of close set bars of clear glass, admitting light but not allowing vision
Bar Windows: Windows of close set bars of clear glass, admitting light but not allowing vision
Baril; Bariz; Barillette: Bottle and flasks with barrel shapes.
Baril; Bariz; Barillette: Bottle and flasks with barrel shapes.
Barley: A pressed glass pattern of finely traced vines, more like hops than a spray of barley. Some pieces have stars, scallops or little panels.
Barley: A pressed glass pattern of finely traced vines, more like hops than a spray of barley. Some pieces have stars, scallops or little panels.
Barrel Decanter: Style of English decanters, from 1775, sporting wide mid-sections, strong necks, and often adorned with sets of rings. Stoppers were often balls or mushrooms.
Barrel Decanter: Style of English decanters, from 1775, sporting wide mid-sections, strong necks, and often adorned with sets of rings. Stoppers were often balls or mushrooms.
Bartlett - Collens Glass Co.: See Liberty Glass Co..
Bartlett - Collens Glass Co.: See Liberty Glass Co..
Basal Rim: A feature of some paperweight. It is a foot ring, around the concave base of a paperweight, that protects the base from wear and chipping.
Basal Rim: A feature of some paperweight. It is a foot ring, around the concave base of a paperweight, that protects the base from wear and chipping.
Basal Ring: The flange found on some English paperweights that is created by in-cutting above the base, it is not a footed paperweight.
Basal Ring: The flange found on some English paperweights that is created by in-cutting above the base, it is not a footed paperweight.
Base: A paperweights bottom.
Base: A paperweights bottom.
Base Glass: The parent or bottom layer of glass, onto which other glass is fused. Also refers to the dominant glass used in fusing.
Base Glass: The parent or bottom layer of glass, onto which other glass is fused. Also refers to the dominant glass used in fusing.
Basket: A glass basket or funnel like decoration to hold decorative elements found around some paperweight designs, made from an outer row of millefiori canes.
Basket: A glass basket or funnel like decoration to hold decorative elements found around some paperweight designs, made from an outer row of millefiori canes.
Basket Weave: Pressed glass patterns imitating flat with basket weaving.
Basket Weave: Pressed glass patterns imitating flat with basket weaving.
Batch: The proportioned raw materials mixture (cullet, sand, soda, lead oxide, lime, potash, etc.), that is heated in a crucible inside a furnace to form glass. Cullet can be a portion of a batch.
Batch: The proportioned raw materials mixture (cullet, sand, soda, lead oxide, lime, potash, etc.), that is heated in a crucible inside a furnace to form glass. Cullet can be a portion of a batch.
Bay State Glass Company: Founded in the 1850s and operating to 1877, in Cambridge, Mass., this plant made a variety of glass. Production included: Bottles Cut glass Fine flint Lamps Molded glass Plain glass Silvered glass Vials
Bay State Glass Company: Founded in the 1850s and operating to 1877, in Cambridge, Mass., this plant made a variety of glass. Production included: Bottles Cut glass Fine flint Lamps Molded glass Plain glass Silvered glass Vials
Bead-forming: See core-forming. The traditional process of making glass beads on metal rods.
Bead-forming: See core-forming. The traditional process of making glass beads on metal rods.
Bead Release: A compound made of daolin clay and alumina hydrate applied to the mandrel for bead making to help a bead release.
Bead Release: A compound made of daolin clay and alumina hydrate applied to the mandrel for bead making to help a bead release.
Beaded Swirl: Pressed glass pattern featuring swirls of beads in diminishing sizes such as a strings of pearls.
Beaded Swirl: Pressed glass pattern featuring swirls of beads in diminishing sizes such as a strings of pearls.
Beaker: Tall drinking glass, accommodating ten to sixteen ounces and on, having somewhat glared sides.
Beaker: Tall drinking glass, accommodating ten to sixteen ounces and on, having somewhat glared sides.
Bear Bottles: Production of an early Pennsylvanian - German factory. Bear bottles also refer to containers of Russian production for kummel or vodka. The reference also includes ridged bottles having seal of a walking bear and the legend "California Fire Extinguisher." These held fire retardant chemicals.
Bear Bottles: Production of an early Pennsylvanian - German factory. Bear bottles also refer to containers of Russian production for kummel or vodka. The reference also includes ridged bottles having seal of a walking bear and the legend "California Fire Extinguisher." These held fire retardant chemicals.
Beecher, Henry Ward, Bottle: Flask produced with the bust of Brooklyn preacher Henry Beecher, during the 1880s, having the name Beecher molded on the breast.
Beecher, Henry Ward, Bottle: Flask produced with the bust of Brooklyn preacher Henry Beecher, during the 1880s, having the name Beecher molded on the breast.
Bee Mark: Later glass of the Higbee of Pittsburgh glass works in the 20th century that sported a characterization of a bee and letters HIG.. Belle Version Glass: Glass of the Belle Vernon, Pa., glass works, from 1834 till the 1880s. Production included: Bottles Flask Hollow ware
Bee Mark: Later glass of the Higbee of Pittsburgh glass works in the 20th century that sported a characterization of a bee and letters HIG.. Belle Version Glass: Glass of the Belle Vernon, Pa., glass works, from 1834 till the 1880s. Production included: Bottles Flask Hollow ware
Bellflower: An old pressed glass pattern, from about the 1840s, with vertical ribbing and a horizontal bellflower vine.
Bellflower: An old pressed glass pattern, from about the 1840s, with vertical ribbing and a horizontal bellflower vine.
Bells: Table bells, of various forms, produced from the 18th century on by Nailsea Glass Works of England. Many were made offhand or after hours. The Liberty Bell style was produced for the Centennial. Pressed glass butter dishes with bell shaped covers, bottles and candy containers of the style were also produced.
Bells: Table bells, of various forms, produced from the 18th century on by Nailsea Glass Works of England. Many were made offhand or after hours. The Liberty Bell style was produced for the Centennial. Pressed glass butter dishes with bell shaped covers, bottles and candy containers of the style were also produced.
Benchblow: The technique were an assistant blows into blow pipe, while the gaffer, seated on a bench forms the glass.
Benchblow: The technique were an assistant blows into blow pipe, while the gaffer, seated on a bench forms the glass.
Bench Torch: A torch that is supported on a stand for working at the bench.
Bench Torch: A torch that is supported on a stand for working at the bench.
Bending: The result of sagging or slumping of glass.
Bending: The result of sagging or slumping of glass.
Benitier: An open, shallow vessel used to hold baptismal or holy water, in churches or chapels.
Benitier: An open, shallow vessel used to hold baptismal or holy water, in churches or chapels.
Bentonite: Aluminum silicate clays, with some magnesium and iron, used in adhesives, cements, ceramic fillers and shelf primers. Clays are characterized by sodium and calcium content that have high and low swelling characteristics.
Bentonite: Aluminum silicate clays, with some magnesium and iron, used in adhesives, cements, ceramic fillers and shelf primers. Clays are characterized by sodium and calcium content that have high and low swelling characteristics.
Bent Glass: The denotes glass that has been actively shaped, such as application of weights, over forms, rather than passive bending by gravity alone. Bending techniques help reduce surface marks and changes of thickness.
Bent Glass: The denotes glass that has been actively shaped, such as application of weights, over forms, rather than passive bending by gravity alone. Bending techniques help reduce surface marks and changes of thickness.
Benitier: Holy water fonts of early molded and cut glass, for churches and chapels.
Benitier: Holy water fonts of early molded and cut glass, for churches and chapels.
Betsy Ross Plate: Pressed glass tea plate depicting Betsy Ross and pierced borders, made about the1880s or 1890s.
Betsy Ross Plate: Pressed glass tea plate depicting Betsy Ross and pierced borders, made about the1880s or 1890s.
Beveling: To finish an edge at other than 90 degrees with grinding and polishing.
Beveling: To finish an edge at other than 90 degrees with grinding and polishing.
Biberon: Glass container with a sealed on cover. Its poring nozzle also served for filling the container.
Biberon: Glass container with a sealed on cover. Its poring nozzle also served for filling the container.
Bigler: Pressed glass pattern version of Ashburton with big thumb prints, horizontal bands, vertical bobbin shaped spear.
Bigler: Pressed glass pattern version of Ashburton with big thumb prints, horizontal bands, vertical bobbin shaped spear.
Bird on Nest Sugar Bowl: Pressed glass bowls having a lifelike bird on nest depictions, produced by Valleryshtal & Portieux, of Lorraine until 1910.
Bird on Nest Sugar Bowl: Pressed glass bowls having a lifelike bird on nest depictions, produced by Valleryshtal & Portieux, of Lorraine until 1910.
Birmingham: O'Leary & Mulvaney. Glass factory of the Pittsburgh region from 1832 to 1860. Production included: Colored glass ware Cut flint glass Fancy glass Molded glass
Birmingham: O'Leary & Mulvaney. Glass factory of the Pittsburgh region from 1832 to 1860. Production included: Colored glass ware Cut flint glass Fancy glass Molded glass
Bisque: Bisque-ware molds are used in slumping and sagging techniques. It is a clay ware that is porous and not fired to maturity, but yet ceramically bonded.
Bisque: Bisque-ware molds are used in slumping and sagging techniques. It is a clay ware that is porous and not fired to maturity, but yet ceramically bonded.
Bit: A small piece of glass.
Bit: A small piece of glass.
Bit Boy: A glass assistant.
Bit Boy: A glass assistant.
Bitters Bottle: Bottles produced for tonic with high alcohol contents, of some 450 types on record.
Bitters Bottle: Bottles produced for tonic with high alcohol contents, of some 450 types on record.
Black Glass: True jet - black glass was a rare American production that included some known vases and covered sugar bowls. American black glass often was a deep red - purple or a dark green.
Black Glass: True jet - black glass was a rare American production that included some known vases and covered sugar bowls. American black glass often was a deep red - purple or a dark green.
Blackberry: Pressed glass patter often of porcelain glass, with banding of blackberry vines, leaves and fruits.
Blackberry: Pressed glass patter often of porcelain glass, with banding of blackberry vines, leaves and fruits.
Blackberry and Grape: Also called Loganberry and Grape. Pressed glass pattern depicting cluster each of blackberries and grapes.
Blackberry and Grape: Also called Loganberry and Grape. Pressed glass pattern depicting cluster each of blackberries and grapes.
Blank: A solid piece of glass before cutting. A cut of sheet glass measured for the base to place the designs for fused glass, or reference to a raw, solid piece or glass to be shaped or patterned.
Blank: A solid piece of glass before cutting. A cut of sheet glass measured for the base to place the designs for fused glass, or reference to a raw, solid piece or glass to be shaped or patterned.
Blaze: Pressed glass pattern with vertical ribbing ending on top with a strong twisting line.
Blaze: Pressed glass pattern with vertical ribbing ending on top with a strong twisting line.
Bleb: The small bit of solid glass formed on the end of a tube when sealing glass by pulling from the end. It is some what thercker lens ahps spot melted in to the end of the tube. The bleb can be removed by pulling it off with a glass tube when hot.
Bleb: The small bit of solid glass formed on the end of a tube when sealing glass by pulling from the end. It is some what thercker lens ahps spot melted in to the end of the tube. The bleb can be removed by pulling it off with a glass tube when hot.
Blister: Large bubbles in sheet and float glass are defects, but sometimes it can be a desired characteristic of art glass.
Blister: Large bubbles in sheet and float glass are defects, but sometimes it can be a desired characteristic of art glass.
Blobbing: The embedding of colored glass chips to create blobs of contrasting color on an object's surface.
Blobbing: The embedding of colored glass chips to create blobs of contrasting color on an object's surface.
Block: Refers to a tool also called a paddle. Also, pressed glass patterns of big irregular blocks. Also, round wooden molds for centering glass.
Block: Refers to a tool also called a paddle. Also, pressed glass patterns of big irregular blocks. Also, round wooden molds for centering glass.
Block with Thumb Print: Pressed glass pattern, like Diamond, having horizontal and vertical division separating blocks, each having an indented thumb print, made in about 1876.
Block with Thumb Print: Pressed glass pattern, like Diamond, having horizontal and vertical division separating blocks, each having an indented thumb print, made in about 1876.
Blocking: The gather is shaped in a glass mold.
Blocking: The gather is shaped in a glass mold.
Blow Hose: A rubber hose, connected to a glass tube, sometimes with a swivel for rotating, that makes it easier to manipulate and/or to see when blowing on a piece of tubing.
Blow Hose: A rubber hose, connected to a glass tube, sometimes with a swivel for rotating, that makes it easier to manipulate and/or to see when blowing on a piece of tubing.
Blow Out the End: Also, blowing out a kidney or sausage. A method of cutting glass tubing. A gob is formed on the end of glass tubing and blown into a thin ball and broken off, then fire polished.
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Cabbage Rose: With reference to paperweights, it is the cabbage like strands of glass that create a clichy rose, passibly made in a rose cane mold.
Cabin Candlestick: Vallerystal & Portieux, Lorraine, produced a 2 piece candlestick in the form of a cabin having a gilded roof and central chimney that held a candle.
Cabin Candlestick: Vallerystal & Portieux, Lorraine, produced a 2 piece candlestick in the form of a cabin having a gilded roof and central chimney that held a candle.
Cable: Pressed glass pattern, of alternating wide and narrow panels, with a twisted rope pattern; this was an commemoration of the completion of the trans-Atlantic cable. Patterns that look link rope strands, or refers to glass thread applied to surfaces.
Cable: Pressed glass pattern, of alternating wide and narrow panels, with a twisted rope pattern; this was an commemoration of the completion of the trans-Atlantic cable. Patterns that look link rope strands, or refers to glass thread applied to surfaces.
Cable Cord: Pressed glass pattern, of alternating clear and colored panels, reputed to commemorate the success of the trans-Atlantic cable.
Cable Cord: Pressed glass pattern, of alternating clear and colored panels, reputed to commemorate the success of the trans-Atlantic cable.
Cable in Ring: Pattern similar to other "cables," and having a bent cable passing through a deadeye.
Cable in Ring: Pattern similar to other "cables," and having a bent cable passing through a deadeye.
Cadalso Glass: Early sixteenth century Spanish glass made by Dutch and Flemish glass blowers. Cadalso features are similar to glass from Nailsea, England having bicolored, spotted, or mottled forms.
Cadalso Glass: Early sixteenth century Spanish glass made by Dutch and Flemish glass blowers. Cadalso features are similar to glass from Nailsea, England having bicolored, spotted, or mottled forms.
Calabash: Rounded, gourd shaped bottles with long tapered necks, similar to chestnut design with more roundness.
Calabash: Rounded, gourd shaped bottles with long tapered necks, similar to chestnut design with more roundness.
Calcium Carbonate: Whitening, Ca CO2 Naturally occurring mineral such as limestone, chalk, marble and others. Used in the manufacture of many products, shelf primer being one.
Calcium Carbonate: Whitening, Ca CO2 Naturally occurring mineral such as limestone, chalk, marble and others. Used in the manufacture of many products, shelf primer being one.
California Glass: California bottle factories started operation during the 1850s, beginning with the Pacific Glass Works. Production included: Bottles Carboys Chimneys Flasks Lamps Shades Tableware Vials
California Glass: California bottle factories started operation during the 1850s, beginning with the Pacific Glass Works. Production included: Bottles Carboys Chimneys Flasks Lamps Shades Tableware Vials
Cage Cup: Diatretum An openwork cage like appearance of a cup with under cuts strut work that lets the surface design stand free of the body of the glass.
Cage Cup: Diatretum An openwork cage like appearance of a cup with under cuts strut work that lets the surface design stand free of the body of the glass.
Cambridge Glass: Cambridge, Mass., porcelain and glass factory, founded in 1814. Producers of the first pressed glass in the United States. Production included: Amberina (originators) glass Druggists' glass Lamps Overlay glass Silver glass Tableware See New England Bottle Company. New England Glass Company (NEGC). It came from the purchase of two Cambridge firms, at auction: the Boston Porcelain & Glass Company and Emmet, Fisher & Flowers, in 1818. On of four partners was Deming Jarves. Production included: engraved glass paperweights form approx. 1850 to 1880. plain glass pressed glass.
Cambridge Glass: Cambridge, Mass., porcelain and glass factory, founded in 1814. Producers of the first pressed glass in the United States. Production included: Amberina (originators) glass Druggists' glass Lamps Overlay glass Silver glass Tableware See New England Bottle Company. New England Glass Company (NEGC). It came from the purchase of two Cambridge firms, at auction: the Boston Porcelain & Glass Company and Emmet, Fisher & Flowers, in 1818. On of four partners was Deming Jarves. Production included: engraved glass paperweights form approx. 1850 to 1880. plain glass pressed glass.
Cameo Glass: Two or mare layers of cased glass in different colors, usually white against dark, that is layered and cut on a wheel to expose the cameo surface in relief. An appearance originally copied from hard stones, imitated with molds and acids baths. The technique was used by the Egyptians and Romans.
Cameo Glass: Two or mare layers of cased glass in different colors, usually white against dark, that is layered and cut on a wheel to expose the cameo surface in relief. An appearance originally copied from hard stones, imitated with molds and acids baths. The technique was used by the Egyptians and Romans.
Cameo Incrustation: Denotes types of sulphide objects.
Cameo Incrustation: Denotes types of sulphide objects.
Camphor Glass: Glass having a cloudy-white appearance like refined gum camphor.
Camphor Glass: Glass having a cloudy-white appearance like refined gum camphor.
Camphor Jug: Small clear glass jug for storing spirits of camphor.
Camphor Jug: Small clear glass jug for storing spirits of camphor.
Canadian: Glass pattern of panels, with bosky views, separated with ivy vines.
Canadian: Glass pattern of panels, with bosky views, separated with ivy vines.
Candle Bomb: Amusement device of the 18th century consisting of a water filled glass bead. When placed into a flame, the heated water turned to steam with a band.
Candle Bomb: Amusement device of the 18th century consisting of a water filled glass bead. When placed into a flame, the heated water turned to steam with a band.
Candlesticks: Venice and Murano produced the early examples early in the 16th century, or perhaps before. Candlesticks have been made in a wide variety of styles, and colors. A study could be made on the topic.
Candlesticks: Venice and Murano produced the early examples early in the 16th century, or perhaps before. Candlesticks have been made in a wide variety of styles, and colors. A study could be made on the topic.
Candy: Reference to scrambled millefiori paperwieghts.
Candy: Reference to scrambled millefiori paperwieghts.
Candy Paperweight: Paperweights of nested glass canes that have the appearance of stick candy.
Candy Paperweight: Paperweights of nested glass canes that have the appearance of stick candy.
Cane: Thin rods or strips of glass that have been stretched while hot to a workable thickness typically less than 1/4 inch. Often used for millefiori or masaic glass and making cotton twist. Or Floret, a small piece of bundled or molded rods that have been pulled out and cut sto the there pappern appear in their cross section,
Cane: Thin rods or strips of glass that have been stretched while hot to a workable thickness typically less than 1/4 inch. Often used for millefiori or masaic glass and making cotton twist. Or Floret, a small piece of bundled or molded rods that have been pulled out and cut sto the there pappern appear in their cross section,
Cane Making: The processes of stretching glass into thin rods and strips. Multiple colors can be used in a single cane to patterns.
Cane Making: The processes of stretching glass into thin rods and strips. Multiple colors can be used in a single cane to patterns.
Cannon and Drum Dish: A drum shaped, milk glass dish; with a cover having a cannon and shot. Thought to be manufactured from the 1870s to 1890s.
Cannon and Drum Dish: A drum shaped, milk glass dish; with a cover having a cannon and shot. Thought to be manufactured from the 1870s to 1890s.
Cannonball: Pressed glass pattern of clear glass with marble sized glass balls on the edges. Made by Butler Brothers during the 1880s and known too as Atlas and Crystal Ball. Production included: butter dishes cake plates compotes goblets pitchers sugar bowls
Cannonball: Pressed glass pattern of clear glass with marble sized glass balls on the edges. Made by Butler Brothers during the 1880s and known too as Atlas and Crystal Ball. Production included: butter dishes cake plates compotes goblets pitchers sugar bowls
Cannon Burner: A large, surface mix bench torch.
Cannon Burner: A large, surface mix bench torch.
Cantaro: Fifteenth century Spanish glass vessels having two spouts, the bigger one for filling and the smaller one for pouring.
Cantaro: Fifteenth century Spanish glass vessels having two spouts, the bigger one for filling and the smaller one for pouring.
Cap: To seal the end of a blowpiece with a finger, thumb or palm, to prevent the collapse of the blown piece.
Cap: To seal the end of a blowpiece with a finger, thumb or palm, to prevent the collapse of the blown piece.
Cape Cod: Pressed glass pattern of oval panels separated by an interstice of stippling or ivy. The name was also used for a pattern now known as Hamilton.
Cape Cod: Pressed glass pattern of oval panels separated by an interstice of stippling or ivy. The name was also used for a pattern now known as Hamilton.
Cape Cod Glass Company: Deming Jarves (after leaving Boston & Sandwich) founded the plant in 1858. Production included: canes cut wares lamps table wares pressed wares paperweights specialty glass Vasa Murrhina glass
Cape Cod Glass Company: Deming Jarves (after leaving Boston & Sandwich) founded the plant in 1858. Production included: canes cut wares lamps table wares pressed wares paperweights specialty glass Vasa Murrhina glass
Cap Hanger: The metal cap, used for hanging, on the top of a Christmas ornament.
Cap Hanger: The metal cap, used for hanging, on the top of a Christmas ornament.
Carbon Paste Mold: Contemporary technique of lining blown molds with a carbon paste to rid mold marks.
Carbon Paste Mold: Contemporary technique of lining blown molds with a carbon paste to rid mold marks.
Cardinal: Pressed glass pattern of a jay or cardinal.
Cardinal: Pressed glass pattern of a jay or cardinal.
Carmen Cut: Cut glass pattern produced from 1880s through the 1890s.
Carmen Cut: Cut glass pattern produced from 1880s through the 1890s.
Carmines: Short, squared shaped, red ink bottles, fitted with glass stoppers. General term once used for containers for red ink.
Carmines: Short, squared shaped, red ink bottles, fitted with glass stoppers. General term once used for containers for red ink.
Carruthers, George: Established the Wheeling, Virginia glass works in 1820. Producer of LaFayette and Jackson flasks.
Carruthers, George: Established the Wheeling, Virginia glass works in 1820. Producer of LaFayette and Jackson flasks.
Carpet ground: A background or foil of closely packed identical canes for a background to a design.
Carpet ground: A background or foil of closely packed identical canes for a background to a design.
Cartoon: With reference to stained and mosaic glass it is the design of tracing paper for planning and laying out piece of the complete design.
Cartoon: With reference to stained and mosaic glass it is the design of tracing paper for planning and laying out piece of the complete design.
Caryatid Bowl: Feature on Caryatid figures, consisting of small globe. Produced by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company.
Caryatid Bowl: Feature on Caryatid figures, consisting of small globe. Produced by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company.
Caryatid Candlestick: Figural Candlesticks.
Caryatid Candlestick: Figural Candlesticks.
Cascade Glass Works: Pittsburgh, Pa., glassworks started in the 1850s. Production included: Bar room glass Blown glass Colored glass Cut glass Plain glass Pressed glass
Cascade Glass Works: Pittsburgh, Pa., glassworks started in the 1850s. Production included: Bar room glass Blown glass Colored glass Cut glass Plain glass Pressed glass
Case Bottles: Bottles designated for use in cases, fitting in divisions of the case. Case bottles have been designed in all shapes, sizes, and colors.
Case Bottles: Bottles designated for use in cases, fitting in divisions of the case. Case bottles have been designed in all shapes, sizes, and colors.
Cased glass: Covering a glass with another color glass either by dipping to gather glass over it, or by blowing a parison a prepared cup of different colored glass. It was used by the Romans, an example, Portland Vase, the Bohemians and English of the mid 19th century, and later in the United States. With reference to paperweights, casing creates a windows to view the center. Also known as Overlay Glass.
Cased glass: Covering a glass with another color glass either by dipping to gather glass over it, or by blowing a parison a prepared cup of different colored glass. It was used by the Romans, an example, Portland Vase, the Bohemians and English of the mid 19th century, and later in the United States. With reference to paperweights, casing creates a windows to view the center. Also known as Overlay Glass.
Casing: Also known as "cup overlay method," glass of one color is fused onto the inner surface of another colored glass. A "cup" of one color is introduced into the other colored glass. By repeating the process, multicolored glass is made.
Casing: Also known as "cup overlay method," glass of one color is fused onto the inner surface of another colored glass. A "cup" of one color is introduced into the other colored glass. By repeating the process, multicolored glass is made.
Cast: That glass made by kiln casting, by Cire perdue (lost wax) methods, or by sand casting.
Cast: That glass made by kiln casting, by Cire perdue (lost wax) methods, or by sand casting.
Cast Glass: The general term is for glass that is cast in one piece molds. The molds are often made of clay or plaster, sometimes for one use. Two or three piece molds are used for casting of poured glass. Forming molds are also used to cast poured glass around objects.
Cast Glass: The general term is for glass that is cast in one piece molds. The molds are often made of clay or plaster, sometimes for one use. Two or three piece molds are used for casting of poured glass. Forming molds are also used to cast poured glass around objects.
Casting: Processes using molds to form glass.
Casting: Processes using molds to form glass.
Caster Place: A special area of a glass factory for the use of expert craftsmen to work.
Caster Place: A special area of a glass factory for the use of expert craftsmen to work.
Castor Bottles: Casting bottles feature either perforated or squirt tops to cast condiments, spices, etc.. Casters are frames to hold casting bottles as table piece.
Castor Bottles: Casting bottles feature either perforated or squirt tops to cast condiments, spices, etc.. Casters are frames to hold casting bottles as table piece.
Cast Porcelain: Late 19th century, dense white glass that was usually pressed into forming molds.
Cast Porcelain: Late 19th century, dense white glass that was usually pressed into forming molds.
Cathedral: Also, known as gothic. Pressed glass pattern featuring Gothic arches, like a cathedral, with either plain or crossed lozenges.
Cathedral: Also, known as gothic. Pressed glass pattern featuring Gothic arches, like a cathedral, with either plain or crossed lozenges.
Cathedral Glass: Transparent colored sheet glass.
Cathedral Glass: Transparent colored sheet glass.
Celery Handle: Often found on Roman glass, it appears as vertical ribbing on a handle surface.
Celery Handle: Often found on Roman glass, it appears as vertical ribbing on a handle surface.
Ceramic Fiber Insulation: A light material of alumina silicate fibers used in kiln. It absorbs less heat than insulating firebrick during heat up and makes kiln operation more economical.
Ceramic Fiber Insulation: A light material of alumina silicate fibers used in kiln. It absorbs less heat than insulating firebrick during heat up and makes kiln operation more economical.
Ceric Oxide: CeO2 A pale, yellowish white compound that can be used a glass polish.
Ceric Oxide: CeO2 A pale, yellowish white compound that can be used a glass polish.
Centennial Glass: Centennial 1876 anniversary glass made by many glass works in many forms and constitutes a broad topic.
Centennial Glass: Centennial 1876 anniversary glass made by many glass works in many forms and constitutes a broad topic.
Centennial Glass Works: 1876 Centennial grounds glass works exhibition set up by Gillander & Sons.
Centennial Glass Works: 1876 Centennial grounds glass works exhibition set up by Gillander & Sons.
Centennial Lamp: 1876 production pieces with candle shades having the forms of tumblers, made in many colors and thought to be placed in rows on window sills.
Centennial Lamp: 1876 production pieces with candle shades having the forms of tumblers, made in many colors and thought to be placed in rows on window sills.
Chain and Shield: Pressed glass pattern having shield forms and inside bands of rope-work with inner pearl like bosses and a central sunburst.
Chain and Shield: Pressed glass pattern having shield forms and inside bands of rope-work with inner pearl like bosses and a central sunburst.
Chain Decanter: Blown molded decanter featuring baroque pattern with belted centers and chain like features.
Chain Decanter: Blown molded decanter featuring baroque pattern with belted centers and chain like features.
Chair: The glassblower's bench, which has flat extended arms to support tools held by the glass blower, while working the glass. Also, an archaic term referring to a team of glass makers.
Chair: The glassblower's bench, which has flat extended arms to support tools held by the glass blower, while working the glass. Also, an archaic term referring to a team of glass makers.
Challinor-Taylor & Co.: Tarentum, Pa., glass works. Production included opalescent glass as: Duck & swan dishes Hen and rooster dishes Table wares
Challinor-Taylor & Co.: Tarentum, Pa., glass works. Production included opalescent glass as: Duck & swan dishes Hen and rooster dishes Table wares
Chambers-Agnew: Pittsburgh, Pa., glass works also known as the Pittsburgh Glass Works (Chambers, Agnew & Co. and A. & D. H. Chambers). Production included: Bottles Druggists' glass Flint table ware
Chambers-Agnew: Pittsburgh, Pa., glass works also known as the Pittsburgh Glass Works (Chambers, Agnew & Co. and A. & D. H. Chambers). Production included: Bottles Druggists' glass Flint table ware
Chaplet Bead: A latticinio thread twist.
Chaplet Bead: A latticinio thread twist.
Charge: The process of loading a furnace with the batch or cullet to be melted.
Charge: The process of loading a furnace with the batch or cullet to be melted.
Charger: The person who charges the furnace.
Charger: The person who charges the furnace.
Cheater: A small tagged on piece of glass that protect the bottom a piece from being damaged by a punty.
Cheater: A small tagged on piece of glass that protect the bottom a piece from being damaged by a punty.
Check: The line of a crack that is visible from stress in the glass and bad annealing.
Check: The line of a crack that is visible from stress in the glass and bad annealing.
Checker: Chequer A paperweight design, checkerboard, of evenly spaced canes with a horizontal filigree separating the piece into a grid.
Checker: Chequer A paperweight design, checkerboard, of evenly spaced canes with a horizontal filigree separating the piece into a grid.
Chelmsford Glass: Chelmsford (Lowell,1826) Mass., glass works that operated from 1802 to 1827. Production included many forms of bottles, but it thought that the Lowell railroad flask was produced by this company. It featured a design of a horse drawn freight car on one side, with "Railroad" marked above and "Lowell" marked below. An eagle was on the reverse side.
Chelmsford Glass: Chelmsford (Lowell,1826) Mass., glass works that operated from 1802 to 1827. Production included many forms of bottles, but it thought that the Lowell railroad flask was produced by this company. It featured a design of a horse drawn freight car on one side, with "Railroad" marked above and "Lowell" marked below. An eagle was on the reverse side.
Chemical Durability: Glass has the ability to withstand wear and decay from exposure to corrosive materials. Glasses with a high boron content and glasses with a soda lime content over 9 % resist chemical weathering that produces a scummy or foggy surface.
Chemical Durability: Glass has the ability to withstand wear and decay from exposure to corrosive materials. Glasses with a high boron content and glasses with a soda lime content over 9 % resist chemical weathering that produces a scummy or foggy surface.
Chemical Etching: The use of hydroflouric acid to remove the surface of glass. A frosted appearance is aceived by adding chemicals to the acid.
Chemical Etching: The use of hydroflouric acid to remove the surface of glass. A frosted appearance is aceived by adding chemicals to the acid.
Chequer Weight: A paperweight design of millefiori canes separated by short lengths of latticinio twists arranged in a checkerboard manner.
Chequer Weight: A paperweight design of millefiori canes separated by short lengths of latticinio twists arranged in a checkerboard manner.
Cherry: Pressed glass pattern featuring cherry clusters. Varieties included: Cherry Paneled Cherry Stippled Cherry
Cherry: Pressed glass pattern featuring cherry clusters. Varieties included: Cherry Paneled Cherry Stippled Cherry
Cherry-Red Glass: Bright cherry-red glass made at Bristol, England from c. 1765, sometimes mistakenly fancied as Bohemian.
Cherry-Red Glass: Bright cherry-red glass made at Bristol, England from c. 1765, sometimes mistakenly fancied as Bohemian.
Chestnut Bottle: Chestnut shaped bottles with many variations such as: Blown molded Diamond pinched Swirled Writhen Others
Chestnut Bottle: Chestnut shaped bottles with many variations such as: Blown molded Diamond pinched Swirled Writhen Others
Chevron Bead: See Rossetta bead. A drawn glass bead with a star design made by its internal patterns of a multilayer fashion. The ends are cut or ground.
Chevron Bead: See Rossetta bead. A drawn glass bead with a star design made by its internal patterns of a multilayer fashion. The ends are cut or ground.
Chick: Clear glass knobs and finials featuring a chick hatching from an egg.
Chick: Clear glass knobs and finials featuring a chick hatching from an egg.
Chill Mark: Indentations on the surface of glass made by cold tools, gloves, or water drops.
Chill Mark: Indentations on the surface of glass made by cold tools, gloves, or water drops.
Choufleur: French, for cauliflower. A form of ground in paperweights formed of loosely set canes with a twist.
Choufleur: French, for cauliflower. A form of ground in paperweights formed of loosely set canes with a twist.
Christmas Glass: Pressed glass (1880 to 1900s) alphabet plates featuring Santa Claus and his Holiday Messages, surrounded with holly borders.
Christmas Glass: Pressed glass (1880 to 1900s) alphabet plates featuring Santa Claus and his Holiday Messages, surrounded with holly borders.
Christmas Lights: Small vases with a bulbous form and rounded bases, for holding short holiday candles. Made in many colors, originally may have been votive light shades that came to be used in Christmas creches and suspended from trees.
Christmas Lights: Small vases with a bulbous form and rounded bases, for holding short holiday candles. Made in many colors, originally may have been votive light shades that came to be used in Christmas creches and suspended from trees.
Chrysoprase: A color of apple green appearance.
Chrysoprase: A color of apple green appearance.
Chrystie, James: New York importer of fine English and Irish cut glass.
Chrystie, James: New York importer of fine English and Irish cut glass.
Cincinnati Glass: Glass works of Gray & Hemingway at Cincinnati and Moscow from 1815; and from 1851 or 1852, Covington, Ky. The Cincinnati plant operated till 1822. Production included: Bottles Flasks Tumblers The Moscow plant produced: Bottles Flask Window glass
Cincinnati Glass: Glass works of Gray & Hemingway at Cincinnati and Moscow from 1815; and from 1851 or 1852, Covington, Ky. The Cincinnati plant operated till 1822. Production included: Bottles Flasks Tumblers The Moscow plant produced: Bottles Flask Window glass
Cire Perdue: French, see lost wax process. A casting technique for glass and metals. A wax model or a shaped layer of wax over a form is covered with the external mold. The wax is melted out of the cavity and metal is poured in, or with glass, a powder or fragments of glass are melted down by lengthy heating.
Cire Perdue: French, see lost wax process. A casting technique for glass and metals. A wax model or a shaped layer of wax over a form is covered with the external mold. The wax is melted out of the cavity and metal is poured in, or with glass, a powder or fragments of glass are melted down by lengthy heating.
Cinquefoil: A cane garland with five loops.
Cinquefoil: A cane garland with five loops.
Circlets: Millefiori canes arranged in small circles in paperweights.
Circlets: Millefiori canes arranged in small circles in paperweights.
Clam-Broth Glass: Blown and pressed glass described as smoky, pearly, semi-opaque, and looking like clam juice.
Clam-Broth Glass: Blown and pressed glass described as smoky, pearly, semi-opaque, and looking like clam juice.
Clamp: A substitute tool for a pontil that holds the closed end of the glass vessel, while the open end is shaped.
Clamp: A substitute tool for a pontil that holds the closed end of the glass vessel, while the open end is shaped.
Clapper: Tool of glass making used to shape or form the footing of a piece.
Clapper: Tool of glass making used to shape or form the footing of a piece.
Claret Jug: Specially made claret wine pitchers having flared spouts, with handles and usually stoppers. Blown pieces exist from the mid 17th century; pressed or cut glass pieces from 1880 to 1910.
Claret Jug: Specially made claret wine pitchers having flared spouts, with handles and usually stoppers. Blown pieces exist from the mid 17th century; pressed or cut glass pieces from 1880 to 1910.
Classic Period: Paperwieghts, Frence production from 1845 to 1860.
Classic Period: Paperwieghts, Frence production from 1845 to 1860.
Claw Beaker: A decorated beaker usually having superimposed hollow truck like claws.
Claw Beaker: A decorated beaker usually having superimposed hollow truck like claws.
Claw Holder: A tool for holding glass such as on the base, foot, or flared end.
Claw Holder: A tool for holding glass such as on the base, foot, or flared end.
Clear Ground: A paperweight design with clear glass used for the background.
Clear Ground: A paperweight design with clear glass used for the background.
Clementon Glass: Clementon, N.J., factory that produced window glass and bottles from the early 1800s.
Clementon Glass: Clementon, N.J., factory that produced window glass and bottles from the early 1800s.
Cleveland Glass: Cleveland glass factory started by Anthony Landgraff in 1840. Glass noted for its pale aquamarine color and blue tints and overtones. Later the operated William Landgraff, then Caswell, and later Union Glass Co..
Cleveland Glass: Cleveland glass factory started by Anthony Landgraff in 1840. Glass noted for its pale aquamarine color and blue tints and overtones. Later the operated William Landgraff, then Caswell, and later Union Glass Co..
Clichy Glass: Clichy la Grenne founded by Maes, Messrs, and Rouyer, possibly at Billancourt in 1837 or at Sevres in 1838, the operation moved to Clichy shorty after opening. Glass produced in Clichy, France. Production included: Bottles Fruit jars Paperweights Perfumers' ware
Clichy Glass: Clichy la Grenne founded by Maes, Messrs, and Rouyer, possibly at Billancourt in 1837 or at Sevres in 1838, the operation moved to Clichy shorty after opening. Glass produced in Clichy, France. Production included: Bottles Fruit jars Paperweights Perfumers' ware
Clichy rose: A rose like cane preferred by the Clichy factory that is imitated.
Clichy rose: A rose like cane preferred by the Clichy factory that is imitated.
Clock Bottle: Bitters bottle with a clock face marked Binnerger's, 19 Broad St., New York.
Clock Bottle: Bitters bottle with a clock face marked Binnerger's, 19 Broad St., New York.
Clockcases, Glass: Pressed glass clock casings, first made in 1845.
Clockcases, Glass: Pressed glass clock casings, first made in 1845.
Clock-Mill Glass: Rare Dutch glass item likely from the late 16th or early 17th century, some have bowls with engraved legends commemorating the unification of the Low Countries. Tumber bowls were the base for silver mill having a clock face. Blowing through a tube caused the clock and mill to appear to operate.
Clock-Mill Glass: Rare Dutch glass item likely from the late 16th or early 17th century, some have bowls with engraved legends commemorating the unification of the Low Countries. Tumber bowls were the base for silver mill having a clock face. Blowing through a tube caused the clock and mill to appear to operate.
Clock Wheels, Glass: Pressed glass production of clock wheels, patented by John P. Bakewell of Pittsburgh in 1830.
Clock Wheels, Glass: Pressed glass production of clock wheels, patented by John P. Bakewell of Pittsburgh in 1830.
Close Concentric: Apatperweight pattern of spacing millefiori wieght with tightly packed concentric circles or canes.
Close Concentric: Apatperweight pattern of spacing millefiori wieght with tightly packed concentric circles or canes.
Close Packed: Also "close millefiori." In paperweights, it is a tightly packed grouping of millefiori canes.
Close Packed: Also "close millefiori." In paperweights, it is a tightly packed grouping of millefiori canes.
Closed Cylinder Blowing: The process of inflating a blob of glass to form a shape. The glass is gathered at the end of a "blow pipe," or is an enclosed cylinder of soft glass canes. See: Dip mold blowing Free blowing Full mold blowing Closed cylinder blowing
Closed Cylinder Blowing: The process of inflating a blob of glass to form a shape. The glass is gathered at the end of a "blow pipe," or is an enclosed cylinder of soft glass canes. See: Dip mold blowing Free blowing Full mold blowing Closed cylinder blowing
Cloisonne: A technique of using gold or silver wires shaped into a designs of cells that hold enamel powder for firing.
Cloisonne: A technique of using gold or silver wires shaped into a designs of cells that hold enamel powder for firing.
Clover Cut: In paperweights, it is the intersecting facets of surface cutting, a form associated with the New England Glass Company.
Clover Cut: In paperweights, it is the intersecting facets of surface cutting, a form associated with the New England Glass Company.
Cluster: The close arrangement of like cane often used in Clish paperweights.
Cluster: The close arrangement of like cane often used in Clish paperweights.
Clyde Glass Works: New York glass factory, started in 1827. Production included: bottles off hand production window glass
Clyde Glass Works: New York glass factory, started in 1827. Production included: bottles off hand production window glass
Coating Cement: A colloidal silica used to coat fiber molds and kiln floors in place of kiin wash or shelf primer. To prevent deterioration caused by glass melting into the fibers of fiber insulated kilns.
Coating Cement: A colloidal silica used to coat fiber molds and kiln floors in place of kiin wash or shelf primer. To prevent deterioration caused by glass melting into the fibers of fiber insulated kilns.
Coaxial: To have the same axis. Two joined glass tubes or rods need to have the same center axis to rotate evenly in the hands.
Coaxial: To have the same axis. Two joined glass tubes or rods need to have the same center axis to rotate evenly in the hands.
Cobalt: A metallic element that is a source of blue color in glass making. An impure form of its oxide of cobalt called the zaffer provides an intense color often toned down by fusing with potassium carbonate and a silicate that makes smalt, which is used to color glass blue. Cobalt can be combined with other elements to produce more colors. For example: lead and antimony oxides produces green, manganese and iron produces a fine black.
Cobalt: A metallic element that is a source of blue color in glass making. An impure form of its oxide of cobalt called the zaffer provides an intense color often toned down by fusing with potassium carbonate and a silicate that makes smalt, which is used to color glass blue. Cobalt can be combined with other elements to produce more colors. For example: lead and antimony oxides produces green, manganese and iron produces a fine black.
Coefficient of Expansion: A measure of percentage change in length or per degree C. change in temperature.
Coefficient of Expansion: A measure of percentage change in length or per degree C. change in temperature.
Coffeyville Glass: Coffeyville, Kansas plant started in 1903 and became the Premium Glass Co. in 1905. It later moved to Sapulpa, Oklahoma. The company divided into the Barlett Collens Glass Co. and Liberty Glass Co., in 1918. Productions included: Jelly glasses Globes Novelties Oil lamps Pressed glass
Coffeyville Glass: Coffeyville, Kansas plant started in 1903 and became the Premium Glass Co. in 1905. It later moved to Sapulpa, Oklahoma. The company divided into the Barlett Collens Glass Co. and Liberty Glass Co., in 1918. Productions included: Jelly glasses Globes Novelties Oil lamps Pressed glass
Coffin & Hay: Glass plant successor to one started in 1831 or 1832, by Coffins and associates in Winslow, N.J.. Production included: Bottles Flasks Hollow ware
Coffin & Hay: Glass plant successor to one started in 1831 or 1832, by Coffins and associates in Winslow, N.J.. Production included: Bottles Flasks Hollow ware
Cold Shop: The shop where cold work is done.
Cold Shop: The shop where cold work is done.
Cold Work: The techniques of cutting, engraving, grinding and polishing glass.
Cold Work: The techniques of cutting, engraving, grinding and polishing glass.
Color: Glass, such as: frit, kugler, powder or rod that is colored with metal oxides and used to impart the color to a piece being worked.
Color: Glass, such as: frit, kugler, powder or rod that is colored with metal oxides and used to impart the color to a piece being worked.
Cog Cane: In paperweights, it is a moled millefiori cane having a serrated edge.
Cog Cane: In paperweights, it is a moled millefiori cane having a serrated edge.
Cog Method: A style of notation used to identify Saint Louis paperweights.
Cog Method: A style of notation used to identify Saint Louis paperweights.
Coin Glass: Blown glass featuring a coin with a stem or foot. Pressed glass with designs of US coins.
Coin Glass: Blown glass featuring a coin with a stem or foot. Pressed glass with designs of US coins.
Cold Painting: Kalte Malerei -- Germanic. Glass painting technique that uses oil or distemper paint that is varnished or glazed for protection.
Cold Painting: Kalte Malerei -- Germanic. Glass painting technique that uses oil or distemper paint that is varnished or glazed for protection.
Cold Work: Techniques not using hot glass such as: cutting, etching, polishing, sandblasting, and laminating
Cold Work: Techniques not using hot glass such as: cutting, etching, polishing, sandblasting, and laminating
Colloidal Silica: Extremely fine silica in a liquid suspension used a bonding agent in some cements.
Colloidal Silica: Extremely fine silica in a liquid suspension used a bonding agent in some cements.
Collar: A metal ring or mask to mark off a disc or template that are used and help center a design that is picked up by molten crystal.
Collar: A metal ring or mask to mark off a disc or template that are used and help center a design that is picked up by molten crystal.
Colonial: Ashburton style pattern of pressed glass, named in the 1870s. Appearance of big "droop"thumbprint and droops over panels.
Colonial: Ashburton style pattern of pressed glass, named in the 1870s. Appearance of big "droop"thumbprint and droops over panels.
Color Ground: The background opaque or transparent colors, onto which designs are placed.
Color Ground: The background opaque or transparent colors, onto which designs are placed.
Color Twist: The characteristic colored, spiraled stems of English drinking glasses of about 1735 to 1775. Rare and faked, examples often are very restored. Continental examples are known to have poor colors.
Color Twist: The characteristic colored, spiraled stems of English drinking glasses of about 1735 to 1775. Rare and faked, examples often are very restored. Continental examples are known to have poor colors.
Colored Glass: Additions of various elements such as cobalt, copper, gold, tin, etc. provide color to glass.
Colored Glass: Additions of various elements such as cobalt, copper, gold, tin, etc. provide color to glass.
Columbia Glass Co.: Findlay, Ohio glass manufacturers. Production patterns included: Dewdrop Hobnail Shell
Columbia Glass Co.: Findlay, Ohio glass manufacturers. Production patterns included: Dewdrop Hobnail Shell
Columbia Tray: Pressed glass tray made in 1892, with a shield shape and the bust of Columbus.
Columbia Tray: Pressed glass tray made in 1892, with a shield shape and the bust of Columbus.
Columbus: Pressed glass patterned items, featuring Columbus, made for the World's Columbian Exposition, at Chicago from 1892 till 1893.
Columbus: Pressed glass patterned items, featuring Columbus, made for the World's Columbian Exposition, at Chicago from 1892 till 1893.
Comb: See feathering and festoon. The technique of dragging a tool across the surface of molten glass to decorate it in an applied design.
Comb: See feathering and festoon. The technique of dragging a tool across the surface of molten glass to decorate it in an applied design.
Combination Pressed and Molded Glass: Combination molds from the later 1880s or so, permitted simultaneous blowing and mold pressing.
Combination Pressed and Molded Glass: Combination molds from the later 1880s or so, permitted simultaneous blowing and mold pressing.
Combing: The process of dragging through bands of softened colored glass at right angles with a pointed object to form a repeated pattern, marvering the resulting threads into the surface. Waves, feathers and zig zag patterns can be made by combing.
Combing: The process of dragging through bands of softened colored glass at right angles with a pointed object to form a repeated pattern, marvering the resulting threads into the surface. Waves, feathers and zig zag patterns can be made by combing.
Comet: Pressed glass pattern of a comet and bull's eye.
Comet: Pressed glass pattern of a comet and bull's eye.
Commode Knobs: Drawer pulls or furniture knobs made of blown glass, often cut and engraved.
Commode Knobs: Drawer pulls or furniture knobs made of blown glass, often cut and engraved.
Compatibility: Mutual characteristics of glass, having the same thermal coefficient of expansion (a), that allow two pieces to fuse together with no undue stress on cooling. Compatable glasses "fit."
Compatibility: Mutual characteristics of glass, having the same thermal coefficient of expansion (a), that allow two pieces to fuse together with no undue stress on cooling. Compatable glasses "fit."
Compote: Tazza, early form. Bowls on a stand of various sizes.
Compote: Tazza, early form. Bowls on a stand of various sizes.
Compound: With reference to drawn or wound beads, it is two or more layers of glass, one on another.
Compound: With reference to drawn or wound beads, it is two or more layers of glass, one on another.
Concentric: A a tightly packed or separated circle, or tightly wound spiral of canes around a common center.
Concentric: A a tightly packed or separated circle, or tightly wound spiral of canes around a common center.
Cone: Small clay pyramid made to soften and deform at a specific stage of temperature and time. They are rated by their heat tolerance.
Cone: Small clay pyramid made to soften and deform at a specific stage of temperature and time. They are rated by their heat tolerance.
Cone Beaker: Drinking vessels with the shape of tall slender cones often with trailed treads decorating the surface.
Cone Beaker: Drinking vessels with the shape of tall slender cones often with trailed treads decorating the surface.
Conical Salt: Cone shaped salt cellars, often with a turned over rim, like a valance.
Conical Salt: Cone shaped salt cellars, often with a turned over rim, like a valance.
Constitution Tray: Pressed glass pattern featuring the frigate U.S.F. Constitution.
Constitution Tray: Pressed glass pattern featuring the frigate U.S.F. Constitution.
Constriction: A thicker area on the inside of a glass tube.
Constriction: A thicker area on the inside of a glass tube.
Constructed: Techniques that join combinations of glass with other materials through glue, epoxies, fusion, bolts, etc..
Constructed: Techniques that join combinations of glass with other materials through glue, epoxies, fusion, bolts, etc..
Continuous: A furnace that steadily melts the batch charged in one end and pulls out hot glass on the other.
Continuous: A furnace that steadily melts the batch charged in one end and pulls out hot glass on the other.
Cookie: A gather of glass that has been pooled on a marver and used as the foot of goblets or base for the base of a piece.
Cookie: A gather of glass that has been pooled on a marver and used as the foot of goblets or base for the base of a piece.
Cookie Base: The fat cookie shaped pad that is the base of fruit paperweights made at the New England Glass Company.
Cookie Base: The fat cookie shaped pad that is the base of fruit paperweights made at the New England Glass Company.
Cool to Room Temperature: To allow all residual heat to dissipate.
Cool to Room Temperature: To allow all residual heat to dissipate.
Cookstown Glass: Crookstown, Pa., glass works producing bottles and windows glass, from 1831 till 1846.
Cookstown Glass: Crookstown, Pa., glass works producing bottles and windows glass, from 1831 till 1846.
Copper in Glass: Elemental or carbonated oxides produces an excellent green glass. Reds, blacks are produced when iron and maganese compounds are added.
Copper in Glass: Elemental or carbonated oxides produces an excellent green glass. Reds, blacks are produced when iron and maganese compounds are added.
Cords: Inclusions that appear as striations of a different composition than the surrounding glass. Improper and insufficient mixing and melting of the glass is the cause.
Cords: Inclusions that appear as striations of a different composition than the surrounding glass. Improper and insufficient mixing and melting of the glass is the cause.
Cordy: Term used to describe the stringy look of badly melted glass.
Cordy: Term used to describe the stringy look of badly melted glass.
Core-Forming: Or core technique. The use of a removable core around which the glass is formed. Traditionally, the core is made of an organic compound (i.e., animal dung), mixed with a binding agent (often clay). The core is fixed on one end of a metal rod and provides the interior shape of a glass vessel. Rod forming is the similar technique, that is used in bead making, but it is distinguished by a thinner core. Melted glass is wound around the core.
Core-Forming: Or core technique. The use of a removable core around which the glass is formed. Traditionally, the core is made of an organic compound (i.e., animal dung), mixed with a binding agent (often clay). The core is fixed on one end of a metal rod and provides the interior shape of a glass vessel. Rod forming is the similar technique, that is used in bead making, but it is distinguished by a thinner core. Melted glass is wound around the core.
Cork Glass: The Irish, Cork Glass Company, produced a fine glass with somewhat gray, smokey appearance. May be marked either on the bottom or side.
Cork Glass: The Irish, Cork Glass Company, produced a fine glass with somewhat gray, smokey appearance. May be marked either on the bottom or side.
Cornaline d'Aleppo: A two layered compound bead, drawn or wound, often a red tone over white or yellow. Thought to be an imitation of banded carnelian onyx beads.
Cornaline d'Aleppo: A two layered compound bead, drawn or wound, often a red tone over white or yellow. Thought to be an imitation of banded carnelian onyx beads.
Corn Ear Bottle: The Ear of Corn, blown mold bottle, was produced from the 1830s till 1840s. Its ribbing and dotting had the look of an ear of corn.
Corn Ear Bottle: The Ear of Corn, blown mold bottle, was produced from the 1830s till 1840s. Its ribbing and dotting had the look of an ear of corn.
Corning Glass: J. L. Gilliland & Co., started the plant in 1822, operated for 45 years, producing a variety and styles of glass. The moved to Corning, N.Y., becoming the Corning Glass Company. Production included: Cut glass Hollow ware Lamps Lantern glass Lenses Vases
Corning Glass: J. L. Gilliland & Co., started the plant in 1822, operated for 45 years, producing a variety and styles of glass. The moved to Corning, N.Y., becoming the Corning Glass Company. Production included: Cut glass Hollow ware Lamps Lantern glass Lenses Vases
Corset: Victorian novelty bottles shaped like corsets.
Corset: Victorian novelty bottles shaped like corsets.
Cotton Stem: A stem type from the 18th century. Air is trapped as longitudinal channels, in a process of elongation and twisting the mass of glass, in cane making.
Cotton Stem: A stem type from the 18th century. Air is trapped as longitudinal channels, in a process of elongation and twisting the mass of glass, in cane making.
Cotton twist: Twists of opaque white glass.
Cotton twist: Twists of opaque white glass.
Coventry Glass: Glass plant at Coventry, Conn., in production from 1813 to 1840s. Production included: Bottles Chestnut flasks Free blown glass Historic flasks Inkwells Jars Mold blown glass
Coventry Glass: Glass plant at Coventry, Conn., in production from 1813 to 1840s. Production included: Bottles Chestnut flasks Free blown glass Historic flasks Inkwells Jars Mold blown glass
Covered Wares: Early blown glass pieces date from the early eighteenth century and were sometimes etched, engraved or cut. The broader definition is all wares matched with covers often at convenience.
Covered Wares: Early blown glass pieces date from the early eighteenth century and were sometimes etched, engraved or cut. The broader definition is all wares matched with covers often at convenience.
Cracking Off: The removal of an object from off a pontil. After cooling and scoring, as opposed to shearing, of the hot glass, the blow pipe is softly knocked and the object drops into a sand tray, V-shaped holder held by an assistant. Also the tecique for making a rim on blown vessels, using a piamond point or other shapr stome and a trail of glass, and the vessel is separated from the overblow.
Cracking Off: The removal of an object from off a pontil. After cooling and scoring, as opposed to shearing, of the hot glass, the blow pipe is softly knocked and the object drops into a sand tray, V-shaped holder held by an assistant. Also the tecique for making a rim on blown vessels, using a piamond point or other shapr stome and a trail of glass, and the vessel is separated from the overblow.
Cracking the Valve: Briefly opening and closing a valve.
Cracking the Valve: Briefly opening and closing a valve.
Crackle: A method of texturing the surface of glass. Hot glass is immersed in water, cracking the surface while the inside stays hot and remains stable.
Crackle: A method of texturing the surface of glass. Hot glass is immersed in water, cracking the surface while the inside stays hot and remains stable.
Crackle Glass: See ice glass.
Crackle Glass: See ice glass.
Craig & Ritchie: Wheeling, Va., glassmakers from c. 1829 to the 1840s. Production included: bottles crown window glass cut glass plane glass pressed wares vials
Craig & Ritchie: Wheeling, Va., glassmakers from c. 1829 to the 1840s. Production included: bottles crown window glass cut glass plane glass pressed wares vials
Cranberry: A light red glass colored with gold.
Cranberry: A light red glass colored with gold.
Crimp: A style of tweezers to form glass bits. In paperweights, it is a metal tool that is stuck into hot glass to create three dimensional lilies and roses.
Crimp: A style of tweezers to form glass bits. In paperweights, it is a metal tool that is stuck into hot glass to create three dimensional lilies and roses.
Crimped Cane: A vertically ribbed cane.
Crimped Cane: A vertically ribbed cane.
Crimper: Ridged block mold to shape a bubble of hot glass to obtain the same effect as gaffering (hand crimping). By placing a gather of glass into a crimper twice doubles the number of crimps in the glass..
Crimper: Ridged block mold to shape a bubble of hot glass to obtain the same effect as gaffering (hand crimping). By placing a gather of glass into a crimper twice doubles the number of crimps in the glass..
Crimping: The act of forming crimps in hot glass with a crimper.
Crimping: The act of forming crimps in hot glass with a crimper.
Crimps: Another name for "mushers." A tool for flattening glass made of two metal plates on either a tweezer stule or lier style handle. Sometimes used to impress a pattern.
Crimps: Another name for "mushers." A tool for flattening glass made of two metal plates on either a tweezer stule or lier style handle. Sometimes used to impress a pattern.
Cristall: Italian, Cristallo. The term for Venetian soda glass made with barilla, of the 14th century, that is made to look like rock crystal (colorless and transparent). It chief characteristic was its softness or ductility that allowed intricate working into shape, and its transparency for the time. Many specimens with the term often have tinges of pale yellow to that of brown or gray.
Cristall: Italian, Cristallo. The term for Venetian soda glass made with barilla, of the 14th century, that is made to look like rock crystal (colorless and transparent). It chief characteristic was its softness or ductility that allowed intricate working into shape, and its transparency for the time. Many specimens with the term often have tinges of pale yellow to that of brown or gray.
Cristalleries d'Albret: See d'Albret.
Cristalleries d'Albret: See d'Albret.
Crizzling: Crisseling, glass disease, sickness. Chemical deterioration of glass is referred to as 'weeping', 'sweating', 'sick', or 'diseased'. It is mainly due to the presence of excess alkalis in the glass reacting to moisture in the atmosphere, forming alkaline condensation, or tears, on the glass surface and creates a fissuring to the glass in fine gleaming lines, like small cracks, and surface dulling. A common glass fault before the late 17th century, when George Ravenscroft remedied it.
Crizzling: Crisseling, glass disease, sickness. Chemical deterioration of glass is referred to as 'weeping', 'sweating', 'sick', or 'diseased'. It is mainly due to the presence of excess alkalis in the glass reacting to moisture in the atmosphere, forming alkaline condensation, or tears, on the glass surface and creates a fissuring to the glass in fine gleaming lines, like small cracks, and surface dulling. A common glass fault before the late 17th century, when George Ravenscroft remedied it.
Crossbill: Scissors-bill flask date from the fourteenth century Italian and maybe Persian factories. A double flask, or gemel, with crossed necks for oil and vinegar.
Crossbill: Scissors-bill flask date from the fourteenth century Italian and maybe Persian factories. A double flask, or gemel, with crossed necks for oil and vinegar.
Crowfoot: Pattern also know as Yale that dates from the 1880s or 1890s. Pressed glass pattern featuring a design like ground-pine frond, or crowfoot.
Crowfoot: Pattern also know as Yale that dates from the 1880s or 1890s. Pressed glass pattern featuring a design like ground-pine frond, or crowfoot.
Crown: Also, dome. That glass that is above the design of a paperweight.
Crown: Also, dome. That glass that is above the design of a paperweight.
Crown Weight: A hollow paperwieght that alternates bands of colored and lacy white twists that spread out around a central floret by the top of the dome and dlows down the sides before converging by the base.
Crown Weight: A hollow paperwieght that alternates bands of colored and lacy white twists that spread out around a central floret by the top of the dome and dlows down the sides before converging by the base.
Crows-foot: See Arrow Cane.
Crows-foot: See Arrow Cane.
Crown Cut: A popular cut glass pattern from the 1880s to the 1890s.
Crown Cut: A popular cut glass pattern from the 1880s to the 1890s.
Crown Glass: Early method of producing window glass. Method of blowing and handling glass to make a crown of glass. A parison is blown into a bubble, cutting off the blowpipe and then attaching a pontil and rapidly spinning it to expand the open end forming a wheel.
Crown Glass: Early method of producing window glass. Method of blowing and handling glass to make a crown of glass. A parison is blown into a bubble, cutting off the blowpipe and then attaching a pontil and rapidly spinning it to expand the open end forming a wheel.
Crown Weight: A paperweight that is hollow blown.
Crown Weight: A paperweight that is hollow blown.
Crucible: Ceramic pots for melting glass.
Crucible: Ceramic pots for melting glass.
Cruciform: A reference to glass, mostly bottles, that have the shape of a cross.
Cruciform: A reference to glass, mostly bottles, that have the shape of a cross.
Crucifix Candlesticks: Religious candlesticks, often made for Catholic churches and home shrines. Crucifix also denotes candlesticks with the cruciform base outline such as Malta or Swiss cross.
-D-
DAB: Acronym for Draw and Blow.
Daisy and Button: Pressed glass pattern characterized by cuts aligned vertically, horizontally and obliquely to form alternating daisies and buttons. Production pieces included: clock-cases, frames for pictures, novelty items and tableware.
Daisy and Button: Pressed glass pattern characterized by cuts aligned vertically, horizontally and obliquely to form alternating daisies and buttons. Production pieces included: clock-cases, frames for pictures, novelty items and tableware.
Daisy and Diamond: Also know as: Daisy in Square, Daisy or Diamond in Hexagon. An American pattern of either blown three-mold or mold-blown glass, the later form thought once to have been made by Stiegel. d'Albret Glass: The French glass gactory started in 1918, by Roger Witking, that began making sulfides in 1967 under the name "Cristalleries d'Albret."
Daisy and Diamond: Also know as: Daisy in Square, Daisy or Diamond in Hexagon. An American pattern of either blown three-mold or mold-blown glass, the later form thought once to have been made by Stiegel. d'Albret Glass: The French glass gactory started in 1918, by Roger Witking, that began making sulfides in 1967 under the name "Cristalleries d'Albret."
Dagenhart: Pressed glassware producer from eastern central Ohio, until about 1970s when transferred to Boyds Crystal Art. Mr. Dagenhart was 92 on his passing, and his wife was said to lived past a 100.
Dagenhart: Pressed glassware producer from eastern central Ohio, until about 1970s when transferred to Boyds Crystal Art. Mr. Dagenhart was 92 on his passing, and his wife was said to lived past a 100.
Dakota Glass: The name of a Pittsburgh product line, made for the Milwaukee company: Blair & Andree.
Dakota Glass: The name of a Pittsburgh product line, made for the Milwaukee company: Blair & Andree.
Date Cane: Millefiori canes with numbers of letters that identify the year of mamufacture.
Date Cane: Millefiori canes with numbers of letters that identify the year of mamufacture.
Daum: Important modern crystal glassware produced by the Daum Company of Nancy, France. Revered for its clear crystal bowls, vases, table services, lamps, and sculptures that are often decorated with applied pieces of lightly colored crystal.
Daum: Important modern crystal glassware produced by the Daum Company of Nancy, France. Revered for its clear crystal bowls, vases, table services, lamps, and sculptures that are often decorated with applied pieces of lightly colored crystal.
Day Tank: A furnace that can cycle through its charge and melt during a twenty-four hour sesstion. Usually larger and more expensive than pot furnaces.
Day Tank: A furnace that can cycle through its charge and melt during a twenty-four hour sesstion. Usually larger and more expensive than pot furnaces.
Decal: Also called transfers. A specialized paper for transferring design to surfaces such as glass by a process of decalcomania. Sometimes it is baked onto a surface
Decal: Also called transfers. A specialized paper for transferring design to surfaces such as glass by a process of decalcomania. Sometimes it is baked onto a surface
Decanter Jugs: Wide mouthed wine containers having a decanter shape.
Decanter Jugs: Wide mouthed wine containers having a decanter shape.
Decolorizing Agent: Chemical that are added to glass to clearify it.
Decolorizing Agent: Chemical that are added to glass to clearify it.
Decorative Paperweight: A reasonably priced paperweight, made for new collectors, made in large quantities and often unsigned or signed with a paer seal.
Decorative Paperweight: A reasonably priced paperweight, made for new collectors, made in large quantities and often unsigned or signed with a paer seal.
Deer and Doe: Deer and Pine Tree. Pressed glass pattern of deer (one with antlers) by a tree.
Deer and Doe: Deer and Pine Tree. Pressed glass pattern of deer (one with antlers) by a tree.
Design: With reference to paperweights, it is the internal decoration.
Design: With reference to paperweights, it is the internal decoration.
Devil's Fire: With reference to paperweights, it is a mottled, swirled pattern that is used by Millville.
Devil's Fire: With reference to paperweights, it is a mottled, swirled pattern that is used by Millville.
Devitrification: Also known as "devit." A deterioration process in which crystals form in the glass, or appear as a fog or scum on the surface and give a dull appearance. A fault of the manufacturing process when glass is heated incompletely or unevenly. Also caused by chemical impurities on the surface, and "cold working". Crystallization occurs when glass in held somewhat below its liquidus temperature, about 1400 degrees F. for most glass.
Devitrification: Also known as "devit." A deterioration process in which crystals form in the glass, or appear as a fog or scum on the surface and give a dull appearance. A fault of the manufacturing process when glass is heated incompletely or unevenly. Also caused by chemical impurities on the surface, and "cold working". Crystallization occurs when glass in held somewhat below its liquidus temperature, about 1400 degrees F. for most glass.
Dewdrop: Pressed glass patterns dating from the 1890s through the 1900s, with thirteen or fifteen varieties.
Dewdrop: Pressed glass patterns dating from the 1890s through the 1900s, with thirteen or fifteen varieties.
Dewey Glass: Glassware made for the Peace Jubilee in Philadelphia at the turn of the century, named for the Admiral George Dewey. The Admiral likeness was featured milk-glass platters, colored plates, pitchers, sugar bowls, tumblers, bottles and dish cover knobs.
Dewey Glass: Glassware made for the Peace Jubilee in Philadelphia at the turn of the century, named for the Admiral George Dewey. The Admiral likeness was featured milk-glass platters, colored plates, pitchers, sugar bowls, tumblers, bottles and dish cover knobs.
Diameter: The measure through a circular object at its greatest width. In paperweights, it is the common measure of size.
Diameter: The measure through a circular object at its greatest width. In paperweights, it is the common measure of size.
Diamond: Blown glass pattern made by tooling and nipping. Known a "nipped diamond-wise" ordip'd diamond waise. Method of blowing a gather of glass into a ribbed mold, where glass rods were held into the rib, and then nipping the rods to form the diamond (or diapered) pattern. Glass blown into a mold with a diamond pattern, and expanding it after removal.
Diamond: Blown glass pattern made by tooling and nipping. Known a "nipped diamond-wise" ordip'd diamond waise. Method of blowing a gather of glass into a ribbed mold, where glass rods were held into the rib, and then nipping the rods to form the diamond (or diapered) pattern. Glass blown into a mold with a diamond pattern, and expanding it after removal.
Diamond Cut: See grid cut.
Diamond Cut: See grid cut.
Diamond Patterns -- Pressed: Patterns consisting of arranged diamond points.
Diamond Patterns -- Pressed: Patterns consisting of arranged diamond points.
Diamond Point with Panel: Representation of a thistle like pattern in pressed glass.
Diamond Point with Panel: Representation of a thistle like pattern in pressed glass.
Diamond Shears: Also called combination shears. Scissors with a "jaw" to both cut hot glass, and to grip hot glass, blowpipes, or punties.
Diamond Shears: Also called combination shears. Scissors with a "jaw" to both cut hot glass, and to grip hot glass, blowpipes, or punties.
Diaphragm: The pressure sendor on a regulator.
Diaphragm: The pressure sendor on a regulator.
Diatretarii: Latin The term in some Roman legal documents that distinguish some artisans from the vitrearii (glassblowers). Diatretarii finished glass by cutting and engraving.
Diatretarii: Latin The term in some Roman legal documents that distinguish some artisans from the vitrearii (glassblowers). Diatretarii finished glass by cutting and engraving.
Diatretum: See cage cup.
Diatretum: See cage cup.
Dichroism: The appearance of one color in relfected light and another with tranmitted light. Such as with gold fuming, the glass has a metallic gold appearance in reflected light, but appears blue, pink, or violet from light shining through it from the back. Reference to glass that shows different colors from different lighting.
Dichroism: The appearance of one color in relfected light and another with tranmitted light. Such as with gold fuming, the glass has a metallic gold appearance in reflected light, but appears blue, pink, or violet from light shining through it from the back. Reference to glass that shows different colors from different lighting.
Didymium: The combination of two rare earth elements: neodymium and praseodymium. Glass filter lenses made of didymium doped glass absorb infrared and ultraviolet radiation, and the yellow flare produced by hot glass.
Didymium: The combination of two rare earth elements: neodymium and praseodymium. Glass filter lenses made of didymium doped glass absorb infrared and ultraviolet radiation, and the yellow flare produced by hot glass.
Die Sinker: A person who makes metal molds.
Die Sinker: A person who makes metal molds.
Dilution Ventilation: Ventilation that dilutes hazardous vapors with fresh air into the work area with a cross current of air.
Dilution Ventilation: Ventilation that dilutes hazardous vapors with fresh air into the work area with a cross current of air.
Dip: To gather.
Dip: To gather.
Dip-Mold Blowing: See blowing.
Dip-Mold Blowing: See blowing.
'Dip-Overlay Method': See flashing.
'Dip-Overlay Method': See flashing.
Disc: See template.
Disc: See template.
Disc Formers: See mashing pliers.
Disc Formers: See mashing pliers.
Diseased: See crizzling.
Diseased: See crizzling.
Dishes: Glass flatware: dishes, trays, salvers, and plates that are blown cut, mold-blown and pressed glass.
Dishes: Glass flatware: dishes, trays, salvers, and plates that are blown cut, mold-blown and pressed glass.
Dispensary Bottles: Glass bottles having insignias marks, symbols of organizations, institutions or states.
Dispensary Bottles: Glass bottles having insignias marks, symbols of organizations, institutions or states.
Doflein, Philop: The maker of molds for glass blowing at the Bridgetown, N.J., Glass Works.
Doflein, Philop: The maker of molds for glass blowing at the Bridgetown, N.J., Glass Works.
Dog House: The opening for charging a continuous melt furnace.
Dog House: The opening for charging a continuous melt furnace.
Dolphin Candlesticks: Pressed glass candlesticks of the Sandwich Glass Works of the M'Kee Brothers of Pittsburgh, and others. A dolphin base supports a candle socket on its tail.
Dolphin Candlesticks: Pressed glass candlesticks of the Sandwich Glass Works of the M'Kee Brothers of Pittsburgh, and others. A dolphin base supports a candle socket on its tail.
Dolphin Epergne: Possibly French for e'pargne--economy. A big , shallow bowl with a dolphin supporting a glass tray and vase. A double purpose center dish holding several foods.
Dolphin Epergne: Possibly French for e'pargne--economy. A big , shallow bowl with a dolphin supporting a glass tray and vase. A double purpose center dish holding several foods.
Dolphin Lamps: Dated from the 1840s or prior. They are alike the dolphin candlesticks but having an oil font instead of a candle socket.
Dolphin Lamps: Dated from the 1840s or prior. They are alike the dolphin candlesticks but having an oil font instead of a candle socket.
Doorstop: Huge pperweights made mostly by midwest glasshouses in America and English bottlemakers.
Doorstop: Huge pperweights made mostly by midwest glasshouses in America and English bottlemakers.
Dome: See crown.
Dome: See crown.
Domed feet: A characteristic of 17th and 18th century glasses, goblets and sweetmeats. The technique also prevented pontil marks from scratching surfaces.
Domed feet: A characteristic of 17th and 18th century glasses, goblets and sweetmeats. The technique also prevented pontil marks from scratching surfaces.
Dopplewand Glass: c. 1760 Bohemian glass. Revival of old method of applications of gold or silver to glass, and coating it with a layer of glass.
Dopplewand Glass: c. 1760 Bohemian glass. Revival of old method of applications of gold or silver to glass, and coating it with a layer of glass.
Dorflinger Glass: Christian Dorflinger (b. 1828), a glassmaker taught at the Saint Louis factory of Lorraine, France. Dorflinger came to America in 1846, working in Philadelphia, and Long Island. The Dorflinger museum exist at White Mills, Pa., where Dorlinger retired and built a small glass works for fine cut wares.
Dorflinger Glass: Christian Dorflinger (b. 1828), a glassmaker taught at the Saint Louis factory of Lorraine, France. Dorflinger came to America in 1846, working in Philadelphia, and Long Island. The Dorflinger museum exist at White Mills, Pa., where Dorlinger retired and built a small glass works for fine cut wares.
Double Dipped: Glassware featuring one color, often opaque white on the inside and another color on the outside. The dip or inner color is shaped on a blowpipe and dipped into the outer color for final shaping.
Double Dipped: Glassware featuring one color, often opaque white on the inside and another color on the outside. The dip or inner color is shaped on a blowpipe and dipped into the outer color for final shaping.
Double Flute: Pressed glass pattern. Another name for Ashburton.
Double Flute: Pressed glass pattern. Another name for Ashburton.
Double O-G: OOG Refers to shapes of saltcellar or vessel having a double ogival curve or line.
Double O-G: OOG Refers to shapes of saltcellar or vessel having a double ogival curve or line.
Double Strength Glass: Standard clear windows glass of 1/8 inch thickness.
Double Strength Glass: Standard clear windows glass of 1/8 inch thickness.
Double Overlay: See overlay glass.
Double Overlay: See overlay glass.
Double Pressing: Glassware made by pressing the product twice to achieve the desired form.
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Eagle and Arms Sugar Bowl: Pressed glass commemorative of the Spanish-American War from 1898 to 1900. Features four eagles, seperated by cannon, on slumping shields that make the feet of the bowl.
Eagle Chimney: Popular design form 1876 to c. 1890. Lamp chimneys and globes with cut or etched eagles.
Eagle Chimney: Popular design form 1876 to c. 1890. Lamp chimneys and globes with cut or etched eagles.
Eagle Glass Works: Port Elizabeth, N.J., glassworks started by James Lee and others in 1800 and operated until the 1880s. A Pittsburgh, Pa., glass plant that operated from the 1820s to the 1850s.
Eagle Glass Works: Port Elizabeth, N.J., glassworks started by James Lee and others in 1800 and operated until the 1880s. A Pittsburgh, Pa., glass plant that operated from the 1820s to the 1850s.
Eagle Mustard Pot: Pressed pattern of milk glass with the head of the eagles forming the cover of the jar, about five inches high.
Eagle Mustard Pot: Pressed pattern of milk glass with the head of the eagles forming the cover of the jar, about five inches high.
Edelweiss Cane: A mllefiori cane with a white star shpe around the core of a yellow rod bundle, the desigh look like the edleweiss flower, the Swiss national flower.
Edelweiss Cane: A mllefiori cane with a white star shpe around the core of a yellow rod bundle, the desigh look like the edleweiss flower, the Swiss national flower.
Edwards Glass: Early nineteenth century glass made at Belfast, Ireland.
Edwards Glass: Early nineteenth century glass made at Belfast, Ireland.
Eglomise Panels: Glass panels painted on their backs with landscape or patterns. Traditionally the term is from Glomi, a Parisian who fixed gold leaf onto the the back of glass, cutting design in the gold and then coating it in colors. Chinese work pre-dates Glomi.
Eglomise Panels: Glass panels painted on their backs with landscape or patterns. Traditionally the term is from Glomi, a Parisian who fixed gold leaf onto the the back of glass, cutting design in the gold and then coating it in colors. Chinese work pre-dates Glomi.
Egyptian: Pressed glass patterns featuring Egyptian and Greek decorations.
Egyptian: Pressed glass patterns featuring Egyptian and Greek decorations.
Elasticity: The ability to return to initial form after deformation.
Elasticity: The ability to return to initial form after deformation.
Electroforming and electroplating: Thin layers of metal are electrochemically applied to a glass surface.
Electroforming and electroplating: Thin layers of metal are electrochemically applied to a glass surface.
Element: A resistance coil of wire that heats up when current is applied. Also a part of a kiln.
Element: A resistance coil of wire that heats up when current is applied. Also a part of a kiln.
Ellenvelle Glass: Ellenville, N.Y., glassworks operating from 1836 to the 1880s. Blown glassware's included: bottles bowls flasks hollow wares tablewares
Ellenvelle Glass: Ellenville, N.Y., glassworks operating from 1836 to the 1880s. Blown glassware's included: bottles bowls flasks hollow wares tablewares
Empire State Glass Works: Francis Thill started this Brooklyn, N.Y., glass works in the 1850s. Production included blown ware in: clear colored flint
Empire State Glass Works: Francis Thill started this Brooklyn, N.Y., glass works in the 1850s. Production included blown ware in: clear colored flint
Enamel: Vitreous enamel paints when fired to fix the colors create a long lasting decoration on glass.
Enamel: Vitreous enamel paints when fired to fix the colors create a long lasting decoration on glass.
Enameled Glass: Revived method used by Dutch, French, Italian and Swiss glasshouses from the seventeenth century. Glassware was painted with low temperature vitrifiable enamels and refired to fix the enamel. Enameling: The technique to decorate glass using powdered colored glass, suspended in a liquid, applied to the surface of glass and fired to fuse it onto the glass.
Enameled Glass: Revived method used by Dutch, French, Italian and Swiss glasshouses from the seventeenth century. Glassware was painted with low temperature vitrifiable enamels and refired to fix the enamel. Enameling: The technique to decorate glass using powdered colored glass, suspended in a liquid, applied to the surface of glass and fired to fuse it onto the glass.
Encased Overlay: See overlay glass A single or double overlay design that is additionally encased in clear glass.
Encased Overlay: See overlay glass A single or double overlay design that is additionally encased in clear glass.
End of Day: See scrambled. A reference to paperweights.
End of Day: See scrambled. A reference to paperweights.
End of the Day Glass: Offhand work done after hours by glassmakers, using up glass remaining from the days production.
End of the Day Glass: Offhand work done after hours by glassmakers, using up glass remaining from the days production.
Engraved Glass: Pre-Christian technique that today uses copper cutting wheels and diamond pointed tools to create designs in glass.
Engraved Glass: Pre-Christian technique that today uses copper cutting wheels and diamond pointed tools to create designs in glass.
Engraving: The use of a copper, diamond and or other wheel to abrade the surface, or to use a diamond pointed tool to stipple the surface. Contemporarily engraving encompasses etching and sandblasting under the term engraving.
Engraving: The use of a copper, diamond and or other wheel to abrade the surface, or to use a diamond pointed tool to stipple the surface. Contemporarily engraving encompasses etching and sandblasting under the term engraving.
Enamel: A durable coating of glass that can be opaque or transparent and fuses at a relatively low temperature. It is often applied as a powder to decorate metalwork, pottery, and glass, requiring a lower melting point than the substrate it is applied to. Often it is mixed into a compound with a vehicle. like lavender oil, which allows it to be painted. Firing the object burns away the vehicle.
Enamel: A durable coating of glass that can be opaque or transparent and fuses at a relatively low temperature. It is often applied as a powder to decorate metalwork, pottery, and glass, requiring a lower melting point than the substrate it is applied to. Often it is mixed into a compound with a vehicle. like lavender oil, which allows it to be painted. Firing the object burns away the vehicle.
Enameling: A process for decorating a glass surface by using finely powdered glass, suspended in a liquid medium, applied to the surface and fired, so that the glaze fuses to the glass.
Enameling: A process for decorating a glass surface by using finely powdered glass, suspended in a liquid medium, applied to the surface and fired, so that the glaze fuses to the glass.
Encased overlay: A single or double overlay design that is encased in clear glass.
Encased overlay: A single or double overlay design that is encased in clear glass.
Epoxy resin: A bonding agent of synthetic resin used to bond glass in laminations and sculpture constructions.
Epoxy resin: A bonding agent of synthetic resin used to bond glass in laminations and sculpture constructions.
Equatorial: Reference to the middle width of a bead perpendicular to its hole.
Equatorial: Reference to the middle width of a bead perpendicular to its hole.
Etched Glass: Method of masking designs on glass with a resistant media like wax, paper, or asphaltum and then exposing it to hydrofluoric acid fumes to etch designs
Etched Glass: Method of masking designs on glass with a resistant media like wax, paper, or asphaltum and then exposing it to hydrofluoric acid fumes to etch designs
Etching: See chemical etching.
Etching: See chemical etching.
Etruscan: Pressed glass that imitates cut glass. Oval "thumbprint" loops alternate with a trio of spearlike cuts. Eugenie: Pressed glass pattern by the M'Kee of Pittsburgh works. The pattern features leaves, shields and shields in a French manner and named for the Empress of Napoleon III.
Etruscan: Pressed glass that imitates cut glass. Oval "thumbprint" loops alternate with a trio of spearlike cuts. Eugenie: Pressed glass pattern by the M'Kee of Pittsburgh works. The pattern features leaves, shields and shields in a French manner and named for the Empress of Napoleon III.
Excelsior: Pressed glass pattern of large thumbprints and raised loop surrounding them, that made diamonds at their junctures.
Excelsior: Pressed glass pattern of large thumbprints and raised loop surrounding them, that made diamonds at their junctures.
Excelsior Glass Factory: Camden, N.J., plant started in 1841. Production included: cut engraved flint plain
Excelsior Glass Factory: Camden, N.J., plant started in 1841. Production included: cut engraved flint plain
Expanded Diamond: Method of applying a tooled diamond to a gather of glass and expanding it by blowing.
Expanded Diamond: Method of applying a tooled diamond to a gather of glass and expanding it by blowing.
Expansion Coefficient: See coefficient of expansion.
Expansion Coefficient: See coefficient of expansion.
Eye Beads: An eye like circular motif applied to or embedded in beads
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Fabricut: An open weaved cloth that is carbide impregnated and has an open weave that facilitates its use to sand shelf primer.
Facet: Also printy or punty. A concave or glat surface made when a side or top of paperweights are shaped on a grinding wheel. Printy often denotes a facet that is concave
Facet: Also printy or punty. A concave or glat surface made when a side or top of paperweights are shaped on a grinding wheel. Printy often denotes a facet that is concave
Faceting: With reference to paperweights it is a flat cut on the domed surface.
Faceting: With reference to paperweights it is a flat cut on the domed surface.
Facon de Venise: The Venetian manner of glass making, or Venetian like materials performed at places other than Venice.
Facon de Venise: The Venetian manner of glass making, or Venetian like materials performed at places other than Venice.
Faience: A predeccessor to glass. It is made of partially fuse quartz sand with mineral coloration, a type of ceramic of a quartz body and glass-like glaze.
Faience: A predeccessor to glass. It is made of partially fuse quartz sand with mineral coloration, a type of ceramic of a quartz body and glass-like glaze.
Fan and Diamond: Pressed glass pattern by Bryce, Walker of Pittsburgh, Pa., from about 1875.
Fan and Diamond: Pressed glass pattern by Bryce, Walker of Pittsburgh, Pa., from about 1875.
Fan Cut: Cut glass patterns from the 1880s.
Fan Cut: Cut glass patterns from the 1880s.
Farley & Taylor Flask: Assumed to have been made at the Louisville Glass Works (1855 - 1860s). Flasks, quart or half gallon in size, marked with "Farley & Taylor, Richmond, Ky."
Farley & Taylor Flask: Assumed to have been made at the Louisville Glass Works (1855 - 1860s). Flasks, quart or half gallon in size, marked with "Farley & Taylor, Richmond, Ky."
Farrell, Felix: From Ireland, Farrell worked at H.W. Stiegel and later the Philadelphia Flint Glass Works, in Kensinton, Pa., from about 1777.
Farrell, Felix: From Ireland, Farrell worked at H.W. Stiegel and later the Philadelphia Flint Glass Works, in Kensinton, Pa., from about 1777.
Favrile: See Tiffany. A form of glass patented by L. C. Tiffany in 1894. It is characterized by an iridescent coating on the surface.
Favrile: See Tiffany. A form of glass patented by L. C. Tiffany in 1894. It is characterized by an iridescent coating on the surface.
Feather patterns: Or festoon A feather like pattern achieve by spiral applications of threads drawn up into pointed vertical lines in a series of hanging loops or festoons, or up and down applications with feather like appearance.
Feather patterns: Or festoon A feather like pattern achieve by spiral applications of threads drawn up into pointed vertical lines in a series of hanging loops or festoons, or up and down applications with feather like appearance.
Feathering: A decorative combing of the surface of glass done by dragging a tool across parallel lines at a right angles, and in both directions, to get a feather like appearance.
Feathering: A decorative combing of the surface of glass done by dragging a tool across parallel lines at a right angles, and in both directions, to get a feather like appearance.
Festoon: A marbrie weight's swag design. A combing technique like feathering, but the glass in combed in one direction only.
Festoon: A marbrie weight's swag design. A combing technique like feathering, but the glass in combed in one direction only.
Fiber Frax, Frax: A specialized insulating material used in hot shops, that is hazardous to handle or breath.
Fiber Frax, Frax: A specialized insulating material used in hot shops, that is hazardous to handle or breath.
Fiber Paper: A fiber paper of alumina silicate used for a fusing surface instead of shelf primer. The fiber impresses a fine matte finish to glass surface.
Fiber Paper: A fiber paper of alumina silicate used for a fusing surface instead of shelf primer. The fiber impresses a fine matte finish to glass surface.
Fiber Softening Point: The temperature above the annealing range in which glass deforms under its own weight.
Fiber Softening Point: The temperature above the annealing range in which glass deforms under its own weight.
Fili: Also Vetro a fili, or filigrana.
Fili: Also Vetro a fili, or filigrana.
Filigrana, Fili: vetro a filigrana Glass canes of a colored center coated by clear glass. All varieties of blown glass, composed of white and sometimes other colored canes. vetro a fili: all the canes form parallel lines vetro a retorti (retortoli): each cane is twisted into a spiral. vetro a reticello: canes cross each other to form a fine mesh, which may trap small bubbles.
Filigrana, Fili: vetro a filigrana Glass canes of a colored center coated by clear glass. All varieties of blown glass, composed of white and sometimes other colored canes. vetro a fili: all the canes form parallel lines vetro a retorti (retortoli): each cane is twisted into a spiral. vetro a reticello: canes cross each other to form a fine mesh, which may trap small bubbles.
Filigree: Also known as lace or muslin Transparent glass with twist of glass rods or threads, to make a fine networked pattern.
Filigree: Also known as lace or muslin Transparent glass with twist of glass rods or threads, to make a fine networked pattern.
Fine, fining, fining out: Process of melting glass over sufficient time frees the glass of bubbles. Some glass is easier to fine than others.
Fine, fining, fining out: Process of melting glass over sufficient time frees the glass of bubbles. Some glass is easier to fine than others.
Fire Polishing: The removal of tool marks. sharp edges, or dull surface by reheating a piece at the glory hole. The surface tension of heated glass draws it smooth. Acid polishing is sometimes now used.
Fire Polishing: The removal of tool marks. sharp edges, or dull surface by reheating a piece at the glory hole. The surface tension of heated glass draws it smooth. Acid polishing is sometimes now used.
Firing Down: During the cooling of the annealing range a small amount of heat is added to the kiln to slow the cooling rate.
Firing Down: During the cooling of the annealing range a small amount of heat is added to the kiln to slow the cooling rate.
Firing Schedule: The fusing cycle record of time and temperature.
Firing Schedule: The fusing cycle record of time and temperature.
Fire Polish: The restoration of surface sheen of a worked edge by reheating.
Fire Polish: The restoration of surface sheen of a worked edge by reheating.
Fit: See compatibility.
Fit: See compatibility.
Fixed Liquid Level: The filling of propane tanks by volume.
Fixed Liquid Level: The filling of propane tanks by volume.
Flame Annealing: The annealing of glass by a torch flame. It is done by gentle heating of glass, right below its softening point, and letting it "soak" at that emperatire for a couple minutes and allowing it to cool slowly.
Flame Annealing: The annealing of glass by a torch flame. It is done by gentle heating of glass, right below its softening point, and letting it "soak" at that emperatire for a couple minutes and allowing it to cool slowly.
Flame Cutting: To cut glass with a flame.
Flame Cutting: To cut glass with a flame.
Flame Ware: See pyrex. Glass that is resistant to cracking at room temperature when exposed to flame.
Flame Ware: See pyrex. Glass that is resistant to cracking at room temperature when exposed to flame.
Flame Working: See lamp work.
Flame Working: See lamp work.
Flammiform: The form of a flame used for decorated effect. Often this is done at the end of wrythen molding.
Flammiform: The form of a flame used for decorated effect. Often this is done at the end of wrythen molding.
Flare: The tooling of glass tubing to spread an end outward.
Flare: The tooling of glass tubing to spread an end outward.
Flash: The thin coating of transparent colored glass that is applied to a paperweights base. A flash overlay applies the glass over the whole paperweight. To briefly heat a piece of hot glass to maintain its temperature to prevent cracking.
Flash: The thin coating of transparent colored glass that is applied to a paperweights base. A flash overlay applies the glass over the whole paperweight. To briefly heat a piece of hot glass to maintain its temperature to prevent cracking.
Flashing: Also dip overlay. See fuming, flash.. Technique of fusing a glass of one color, dipping, onto the outer surface of a gather of glass that is a different color.
Flashing: Also dip overlay. See fuming, flash.. Technique of fusing a glass of one color, dipping, onto the outer surface of a gather of glass that is a different color.
Float Process: The process of floating molten glass over a bath of molten tin, where it spreads to an even thickness and a fire polish.
Float Process: The process of floating molten glass over a bath of molten tin, where it spreads to an even thickness and a fire polish.
Floor Model: A piece of glass that has hit the floor, obviously.
Floor Model: A piece of glass that has hit the floor, obviously.
Flux: Chemicals, such as lead, soda, potash, used to lower the melting point ot the silica components of glass.
Flux: Chemicals, such as lead, soda, potash, used to lower the melting point ot the silica components of glass.
Field & Clark: Glass cutters of Utica, N. Y., from about the 1820s to 1840s.
Field & Clark: Glass cutters of Utica, N. Y., from about the 1820s to 1840s.
Figural Bottles: Term for blown glass bottle with the look of the human form. Also term used for bottles of animals, fruits and vegetables.
Figural Bottles: Term for blown glass bottle with the look of the human form. Also term used for bottles of animals, fruits and vegetables.
Figural Candlestick: Usually pressed glass candlesockets supported by a caryatid.
Figural Candlestick: Usually pressed glass candlesockets supported by a caryatid.
Figural Glass: Ranging from busts to half or full length figures from England in 1850.
Figural Glass: Ranging from busts to half or full length figures from England in 1850.
Figured Pressed Glass: Origianl name for pattern glsss.
Figured Pressed Glass: Origianl name for pattern glsss.
Filigree Glass: Art glass made of different colored canes fused along thier legths and then twisted while heated creating an interanal spiral of alternating colors along the length.
Filigree Glass: Art glass made of different colored canes fused along thier legths and then twisted while heated creating an interanal spiral of alternating colors along the length.
Fine Cut: Pressed glass pattern that initates cutting into bars and lozenges by crisscross diamond and diapering.
Fine Cut: Pressed glass pattern that initates cutting into bars and lozenges by crisscross diamond and diapering.
Fine Ribbed: Pressed glass pattern like Bellflower,Grape or Ivy but without the appearance of those namesakes.
Fine Ribbed: Pressed glass pattern like Bellflower,Grape or Ivy but without the appearance of those namesakes.
Fire Extinguisher Bottle: Bottle of many forms that held fire extiguisant fluids. The period of 1870s to 1880s propered the invention of many novel devices.
Fire Extinguisher Bottle: Bottle of many forms that held fire extiguisant fluids. The period of 1870s to 1880s propered the invention of many novel devices.
Firing Glasses: Drinking glasses from the 1650s to 1850s with overly thick stems and strong bases to pound tables in applause.
Firing Glasses: Drinking glasses from the 1650s to 1850s with overly thick stems and strong bases to pound tables in applause.
Fish Globe Cage: A blown gold fish bowl that held a bird cage in it's hollow interior.
Fish Globe Cage: A blown gold fish bowl that held a bird cage in it's hollow interior.
Fish Scale: See Pressed Glass, Late.
Fish Scale: See Pressed Glass, Late.
Fislerville: A New Jersey factory started in 1850 Production included: bottles containers flasks
Fislerville: A New Jersey factory started in 1850 Production included: bottles containers flasks
Flaccus Glass: Glass made at Wheeling, West Verginia. Production included: novelties tablewares
Flaccus Glass: Glass made at Wheeling, West Verginia. Production included: novelties tablewares
Flag: 1870s: experimental tiles of slag or black glass in flat or tile form used for roofing. 1890s: pressed glass patterns with of a band of stars with molded verticle stripes used on: creamers pitchers sugar bowls other products
Flag: 1870s: experimental tiles of slag or black glass in flat or tile form used for roofing. 1890s: pressed glass patterns with of a band of stars with molded verticle stripes used on: creamers pitchers sugar bowls other products
Flanged Cover: Glass covers having the glanged skirt inside atheir rim that fitted into bowls or other glass products. The flanged designed was used through the eighteenth and part of the nineteenth centuries. Used in general until about 1805 when the gallaried rim was produced.
Flanged Cover: Glass covers having the glanged skirt inside atheir rim that fitted into bowls or other glass products. The flanged designed was used through the eighteenth and part of the nineteenth centuries. Used in general until about 1805 when the gallaried rim was produced.
Flashed: A thin coating of different colored glass, seen in section much thinner than casing or overlay.
Flashed: A thin coating of different colored glass, seen in section much thinner than casing or overlay.
Flashed glass: Sheet glass with two layers of different colors and usually thicknesses. Sandblasting and etching creates shading and if fused onto a third color, the nature is for fused glass edges to turn up creating a natural outline.
Flashed glass: Sheet glass with two layers of different colors and usually thicknesses. Sandblasting and etching creates shading and if fused onto a third color, the nature is for fused glass edges to turn up creating a natural outline.
Flashing: Aslo flashed Also known as 'dip overlay method', flashing dips and then fuses a thin layer of different colored glass onto a glass surface. The process is repeatable to create multicolored layered glass. See fuming.
Flashing: Aslo flashed Also known as 'dip overlay method', flashing dips and then fuses a thin layer of different colored glass onto a glass surface. The process is repeatable to create multicolored layered glass. See fuming.
Flat Bouquet: Also nosegay. Aslo refers to the design of some paperweights. A design where components such as flowers and leaves, or cane to depict them, are lain flat and parallel to the base.
Flat Bouquet: Also nosegay. Aslo refers to the design of some paperweights. A design where components such as flowers and leaves, or cane to depict them, are lain flat and parallel to the base.
Flat Diamond with Panel: Pressed glass patterns of deamond like lattices seperating oval panels.
Flat Diamond with Panel: Pressed glass patterns of deamond like lattices seperating oval panels.
Flat Sawtooth: Pressed glass pattern, like Sawtooth, but having diamond patterns with flattened points.
Flat Sawtooth: Pressed glass pattern, like Sawtooth, but having diamond patterns with flattened points.
Flint Glass: An American term of the 19th century for fine, lead glass. The term originates from the original experimentation with powdered flints instead of lead oxide.
Flint Glass: An American term of the 19th century for fine, lead glass. The term originates from the original experimentation with powdered flints instead of lead oxide.
Flip: Drinking glasses usually of over ten ounces in size.
Flip: Drinking glasses usually of over ten ounces in size.
Floating Glass Works: A riverboat, mentioned in publication in 1842, that had a glassmaking facilities that operated on the Ohio River. This operation made the first factory on a boat as well as the first store boat to produce its own wares.
Floating Glass Works: A riverboat, mentioned in publication in 1842, that had a glassmaking facilities that operated on the Ohio River. This operation made the first factory on a boat as well as the first store boat to produce its own wares.
Float Process: The process of floating glass on a surface of molten tin, that spread the glass into uniform thickness with a fire polished surface on both sides.
Float Process: The process of floating glass on a surface of molten tin, that spread the glass into uniform thickness with a fire polished surface on both sides.
Floret: See cane.
Floret: See cane.
Flower Pattern Glass: Pressed glass pattern of numerous forms of floral depictions.
Flower Pattern Glass: Pressed glass pattern of numerous forms of floral depictions.
Flower Troughs: Pressed glass trays or troughs made from the 1860s, in different forms and pattern, for floral arrangements.
Flower Troughs: Pressed glass trays or troughs made from the 1860s, in different forms and pattern, for floral arrangements.
Flower Weight: Paperweight that have a lone flower as the main subject.
Flower Weight: Paperweight that have a lone flower as the main subject.
Flue: The chimney of a furnace.
Flue: The chimney of a furnace.
Flutes: Pressed glass pattern having tapered panels and curved tops creating the lines of the glass work.
Flutes: Pressed glass pattern having tapered panels and curved tops creating the lines of the glass work.
Fluting: Vertically surfaces cut in long narrow section, sometimes molded but usually cut with a wheel. Upright markings on pressed glass where the space between the markings are wider than the markings.
Fluting: Vertically surfaces cut in long narrow section, sometimes molded but usually cut with a wheel. Upright markings on pressed glass where the space between the markings are wider than the markings.
Flux: Chemicals such as soda, potash and lead, that lower the melting point of the main silica body of the batch, promoting fusion and flow. Flux added to colors of enamel, allowed them to melt before surface onto which they were applied to. Venetian glass, soda ash Bohemian, potash. Forest, wood ash. Lead crystal, lead oxide.
Flux: Chemicals such as soda, potash and lead, that lower the melting point of the main silica body of the batch, promoting fusion and flow. Flux added to colors of enamel, allowed them to melt before surface onto which they were applied to. Venetian glass, soda ash Bohemian, potash. Forest, wood ash. Lead crystal, lead oxide.
Fly Trap: Literally, fly traps of glass dating from the 1840s. A stopperd, short decanter like glass having a "bumped up" bottom with a opening that sat on a footed ring.
Fly Trap: Literally, fly traps of glass dating from the 1840s. A stopperd, short decanter like glass having a "bumped up" bottom with a opening that sat on a footed ring.
Folded Foot: The edge of a foot that is turned under to form a sturdier double rim to rest a glass piece. An important feature for fragile soda glass that disappeared with the arrival of lead glass.
Folded Foot: The edge of a foot that is turned under to form a sturdier double rim to rest a glass piece. An important feature for fragile soda glass that disappeared with the arrival of lead glass.
Folded Rim: Also, folded foot A narrow border (turned under) of double thickness glass on the edge of a vessel, often on the foot, provides greater strength and chip resistance on fragile glass such as soda. The appearance of more durable lead glass decreased its need and use. A 19th century variation, folded over glass feet, offered protection against damage.
Folded Rim: Also, folded foot A narrow border (turned under) of double thickness glass on the edge of a vessel, often on the foot, provides greater strength and chip resistance on fragile glass such as soda. The appearance of more durable lead glass decreased its need and use. A 19th century variation, folded over glass feet, offered protection against damage.
Foot: That part of a glass object that actually rests of a surface, as opposed to the base.
Foot: That part of a glass object that actually rests of a surface, as opposed to the base.
Foot Flattener: The tool that flattens the foot of stemware, often made of wood.
Foot Flattener: The tool that flattens the foot of stemware, often made of wood.
Footed Decanter: Novelty decanters from the 1820s imported by I. S. Cunninghom of Boston and assumed to be of English or Irish production.
Footed Decanter: Novelty decanters from the 1820s imported by I. S. Cunninghom of Boston and assumed to be of English or Irish production.
Footed Ware: A glass objects having a base attached. Many forms of footings exist.
Footed Ware: A glass objects having a base attached. Many forms of footings exist.
Footed Weight: Also pedastal weight or piedouche. A paperweight that has a pedestal with a flange on the bottom.
Footed Weight: Also pedastal weight or piedouche. A paperweight that has a pedestal with a flange on the bottom.
Forest Glass: A usually green glass of Middle ages, and later, forest glasshouses of central and northern Europe. Iron impurities in the available sands created the green tones, and the glasses were often fluxed with potash from the furnaces.
Forest Glass: A usually green glass of Middle ages, and later, forest glasshouses of central and northern Europe. Iron impurities in the available sands created the green tones, and the glasses were often fluxed with potash from the furnaces.
Form: A heat resistant objects that is used to form the glass, such as in the slumping process.
Form: A heat resistant objects that is used to form the glass, such as in the slumping process.
Founding: Process of making glass in a furnace by melting and fusing the materials.
Founding: Process of making glass in a furnace by melting and fusing the materials.
Four Petal: Pressed glass pattern of circles placed to form four petal that are seperated with squares. The veined petals form wquares in the circles and have a dot or circle centered in each larger circle.
Four Petal: Pressed glass pattern of circles placed to form four petal that are seperated with squares. The veined petals form wquares in the circles and have a dot or circle centered in each larger circle.
FOW: Acronym for Fold Over and Wipe. Method of building up hot glass on the work.
FOW: Acronym for Fold Over and Wipe. Method of building up hot glass on the work.
Franklin Glass: 1. The Franklin Glass Works was started in 1812 in Warwick, Mass. Production included: bottles bowls vases vials similar glass ware 2. The Franklin Glass Works was started in 1861 by Gillinder and others at Philadelphia. It later was known as the Gillinder Glass Works. The factory moved to Greensburg, Pa., in the 1880s and later merged with U. S. Glass Co. Production included: bottles blown glass cameo glass camphor glass candlesticks lamps novelties shades 3. A Franklin Glass Works existed at Malaga, N.J.
Franklin Glass: 1. The Franklin Glass Works was started in 1812 in Warwick, Mass. Production included: bottles bowls vases vials similar glass ware 2. The Franklin Glass Works was started in 1861 by Gillinder and others at Philadelphia. It later was known as the Gillinder Glass Works. The factory moved to Greensburg, Pa., in the 1880s and later merged with U. S. Glass Co. Production included: bottles blown glass cameo glass camphor glass candlesticks lamps novelties shades 3. A Franklin Glass Works existed at Malaga, N.J.
Free-blowing: See blowing.
Free-blowing: See blowing.
Free Will Glass: The Free-Will Glass Manufactory was started in 1835 at Williamstown, N.J.. Production included: bottles glasks vials In the 1850s it merged with the Washington Glass Works.
Free Will Glass: The Free-Will Glass Manufactory was started in 1835 at Williamstown, N.J.. Production included: bottles glasks vials In the 1850s it merged with the Washington Glass Works.
Freezing Range: Temperature range at which glass solidifies.
Freezing Range: Temperature range at which glass solidifies.
Frigger: The traditional term of the personal (craftsman) or the pieces they produced for personal or decorative use, or as a present to family members, or as an article to sell to friends or neighbors. An end of the day piece.
Frigger: The traditional term of the personal (craftsman) or the pieces they produced for personal or decorative use, or as a present to family members, or as an article to sell to friends or neighbors. An end of the day piece.
Frigging: English These were after hours products that used up left over glass and were sometimes called end of day glass
Frigging: English These were after hours products that used up left over glass and were sometimes called end of day glass
Frit: Also called jimmies. Glass that has been crushed or ground into powdered graded sizes for later use to add color. Also, a calcine mix of fluxes and sand to melt into glass. Protective dust mask gaurd against silicosis with powdered glass.
Frit: Also called jimmies. Glass that has been crushed or ground into powdered graded sizes for later use to add color. Also, a calcine mix of fluxes and sand to melt into glass. Protective dust mask gaurd against silicosis with powdered glass.
Front Loader: An annealer with the door hinged on the front.
Front Loader: An annealer with the door hinged on the front.
Frosted Artichoke: Pressed glass pattern of an artichoke leaf in arranged either as a pyramid or over all application.
Frosted Artichoke: Pressed glass pattern of an artichoke leaf in arranged either as a pyramid or over all application.
Frosted Eagle: Clear glass wares that had etched decor and frosted knobs or finials formed of eagles. The bases were corded and of low footing.
Frosted Eagle: Clear glass wares that had etched decor and frosted knobs or finials formed of eagles. The bases were corded and of low footing.
Frosted Glass in Patterns: Any patterned frosted glass. The book Early American Pressed Glass by Ruth Webb illustrates many.
Frosted Glass in Patterns: Any patterned frosted glass. The book Early American Pressed Glass by Ruth Webb illustrates many.
Fruit Knives: Made in the 1840s at Paris.
Fruit Knives: Made in the 1840s at Paris.
Fuchsia in Square: Pressed glass patterns of the fushsia flower and foliage in somewhat tapered square panels.
Fuchsia in Square: Pressed glass patterns of the fushsia flower and foliage in somewhat tapered square panels.
Fugitive: An elusive characteristic such as color or visual effect that is short lived or hard to control.
Fugitive: An elusive characteristic such as color or visual effect that is short lived or hard to control.
Full Fuse Temperature: Temperature, 1550 to 1620 F., which glass melt to form a flat surface.
Full Fuse Temperature: Temperature, 1550 to 1620 F., which glass melt to form a flat surface.
Full Mold Blowing: See Blowing, Full Molded, Full Blown Molded.
Full Mold Blowing: See Blowing, Full Molded, Full Blown Molded.
Fuming: Also called flashing. Vapor deposition of a thim film of metal on the surface of glass such as: gold, silver, or platinum. This creates either a color tine, iridescence or shiny metal surface. Coating a glass surface with a thinly sprayed film of metal chlorides that creates a wrinkled, iridescent sheen to the surface.
Fuming: Also called flashing. Vapor deposition of a thim film of metal on the surface of glass such as: gold, silver, or platinum. This creates either a color tine, iridescence or shiny metal surface. Coating a glass surface with a thinly sprayed film of metal chlorides that creates a wrinkled, iridescent sheen to the surface.
Furnace: An apparatus that can make or melt glass to needed temperatures. A glory-hole in the furnace allows access to the molten glass.
Furnace: An apparatus that can make or melt glass to needed temperatures. A glory-hole in the furnace allows access to the molten glass.
Furnace Glass: Glass that has come out of a furnace to be worked.
Furnace Glass: Glass that has come out of a furnace to be worked.
Furniture Knobs: Also knows as drawer pulls. Glass objects, for furniture, made from the eighteenth century, either blown, cut, or engraved.
Furniture Knobs: Also knows as drawer pulls. Glass objects, for furniture, made from the eighteenth century, either blown, cut, or engraved.
Fuse: The application of heat to join two things together. Fuse to Stick: The lowest temperature when fusion occurs and glasses stick together, but still retain respective characteristics with no flow between the individual layers of glass.
Fuse: The application of heat to join two things together. Fuse to Stick: The lowest temperature when fusion occurs and glasses stick together, but still retain respective characteristics with no flow between the individual layers of glass.
Fused Quartz: A glass made from pure silica (SiO2). It is very resistant to chemicals and thermal shock. It is used for high temperature work.
Fused Quartz: A glass made from pure silica (SiO2). It is very resistant to chemicals and thermal shock. It is used for high temperature work.
Fusing: A process of taking two or more pieces of glass and melting them together.
Fusing: A process of taking two or more pieces of glass and melting them together.
Fusing Ranch: Founded in 1980, this was a research and education laboratory for the craft of glass fusing and study supplies used in the craft. Noted for an expensive lawsuit that occurred in 1993.
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Gadget: A specialized rod with a plunger activated spring clip on its end to grip the foot of newly made glass objects, while the worker finishes the piece. The replaces the pontil and avoid the mark a pontil would leave. When the work is finished, the glass can be remotely dropped into a bed of sand before annealing.
Gadrooning: A decorative band used on Venetian glass, jelly glasses and lower parts of the bowls of some drinking glasses. It originated from a popular silver form of molded, applied or cut sections of reeds.
Gadrooning: A decorative band used on Venetian glass, jelly glasses and lower parts of the bowls of some drinking glasses. It originated from a popular silver form of molded, applied or cut sections of reeds.
Gall: Also known as sandever. Those impurities that come to the surface of molten glass during production and is skimmed off for the pure metal beneath.
Gall: Also known as sandever. Those impurities that come to the surface of molten glass during production and is skimmed off for the pure metal beneath.
Gallatin - Kramer: See New Geneva Glass.
Gallatin - Kramer: See New Geneva Glass.
Gaffer: English, corruption of the word grandfather. The head glassblower of a factory team. Used to describe the Master of a "chair" or glass working team.
Gaffer: English, corruption of the word grandfather. The head glassblower of a factory team. Used to describe the Master of a "chair" or glass working team.
Galle: Art Nouveau glassware made by the Frenchman Emile Galle in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He made heavy, deeply colored--almost opaque--decorative bowls and vases with distinctive raised designs of leaves, flowers, vines, fruit, and animals on the surfaces. These pieces showed a slight Japanese influence, which was of popular interest at the time.
Galle: Art Nouveau glassware made by the Frenchman Emile Galle in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He made heavy, deeply colored--almost opaque--decorative bowls and vases with distinctive raised designs of leaves, flowers, vines, fruit, and animals on the surfaces. These pieces showed a slight Japanese influence, which was of popular interest at the time.
Galleried Rim: Blown glass of the nineteenth century having a rim to hold the cover from extending into the vessel..
Galleried Rim: Blown glass of the nineteenth century having a rim to hold the cover from extending into the vessel..
Galvanometer: See pyrometer.
Galvanometer: See pyrometer.
Garage: An insulated space to "park" piece at annealing temperature for later work.
Garage: An insulated space to "park" piece at annealing temperature for later work.
Garfield Drape: Pressed glass with the bust of President Garfield surrounded by drapery.
Garfield Drape: Pressed glass with the bust of President Garfield surrounded by drapery.
Garland: The wavy patter created with one or more chain of millefiori canes.
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Haggerty Glass Works: The factory at Brooklyn, N.Y., started in the 1850s and produced until the1890s. Production included: bottles carboys green glassware hollow ware
Haik Brush: A natural fiber brush, with absorbent and retentive properties, good for the application of shelf primer and other suspended products.
Haik Brush: A natural fiber brush, with absorbent and retentive properties, good for the application of shelf primer and other suspended products.
Half Post: Similar to pillar molding, it is the German method of patterning blown glass. A parison is dipped into hot glass, then plunged, in part, into a mold.
Half Post: Similar to pillar molding, it is the German method of patterning blown glass. A parison is dipped into hot glass, then plunged, in part, into a mold.
Half Molding: See mezza-forma.
Half Molding: See mezza-forma.
Hamilton: Pressed glass pattern depicting an imitation band of cutwork styled after Irish forms of Cork or Stourbridge and having rayed flute on top and under Hamilton with Leaf omits the fluting and adds horizontal bandings of leaves.
Hamilton: Pressed glass pattern depicting an imitation band of cutwork styled after Irish forms of Cork or Stourbridge and having rayed flute on top and under Hamilton with Leaf omits the fluting and adds horizontal bandings of leaves.
Hamilton Glass Works: The Hamilton Glass Works was started by Coffin and Hay in c. 1814 and operated until the 1850s. Production included: bottles flasks offhand work
Hamilton Glass Works: The Hamilton Glass Works was started by Coffin and Hay in c. 1814 and operated until the 1850s. Production included: bottles flasks offhand work
Hand: Pressed glass pattern having twos rows of alternating clear and diamond pointed panels. The finials and handles of covered pieces featured a clenched hand with a baton.
Hand: Pressed glass pattern having twos rows of alternating clear and diamond pointed panels. The finials and handles of covered pieces featured a clenched hand with a baton.
Hand Coolers: Early Victorian glass object, solid or hollow blown, having an egg shaped form, used by women to cool the hands. There were many forms and were often were elegantly decorated in paperweight manners.
Hand Coolers: Early Victorian glass object, solid or hollow blown, having an egg shaped form, used by women to cool the hands. There were many forms and were often were elegantly decorated in paperweight manners.
Hand Pressed: Glass pressed in a hand operated machine.
Hand Pressed: Glass pressed in a hand operated machine.
Hand Puffer: See soffieta.
Hand Puffer: See soffieta.
Hard Glass: See borosilicate. Borosilicate glass and others that have a high melting point. "Soft" glasses are lead or soda-lime glass.
Hard Glass: See borosilicate. Borosilicate glass and others that have a high melting point. "Soft" glasses are lead or soda-lime glass.
Harmony Glass Works: The factory was started in 1813 at Glassboro, N.J. and became the Whitney Glass Works in about 1837 or 1838. Production included: bottles flasks tableware vials
Harmony Glass Works: The factory was started in 1813 at Glassboro, N.J. and became the Whitney Glass Works in about 1837 or 1838. Production included: bottles flasks tableware vials
Harp: Pressed glass pattern of six panels with a lyre each.
Harp: Pressed glass pattern of six panels with a lyre each.
Hats: See glass hats.
Hats: See glass hats.
Hat Bottle: Blown glass forms with short necks and an opening in the crown that probably were used as inkwells. Bottomless pieces were made by a lone worker, who unaided formed the hat.
Hat Bottle: Blown glass forms with short necks and an opening in the crown that probably were used as inkwells. Bottomless pieces were made by a lone worker, who unaided formed the hat.
Head Beads: Often relatively large beads of heads with facial features and elaboration's, made at the lamp out of contrasting opaque glass.
Head Beads: Often relatively large beads of heads with facial features and elaboration's, made at the lamp out of contrasting opaque glass.
Heart and Thumb Print: Also, known as Bull's Eye and Heart. Pressed glass pattern depicting heart shapes divided by large thumbprints, or bull's eyes.
Heart and Thumb Print: Also, known as Bull's Eye and Heart. Pressed glass pattern depicting heart shapes divided by large thumbprints, or bull's eyes.
Heart Divided: Pressed glass pattern of hearts as a band, with the hearts divided by vertical bars.
Heart Divided: Pressed glass pattern of hearts as a band, with the hearts divided by vertical bars.
Heat: Physical energy produced from combustion, friction, electrical or chemical action. The total quantity of kinetic energy of an object, not the "temperature." An example is two objects of the same material, but different sizes, at the same temperature; the larger object has more heat.
Heat: Physical energy produced from combustion, friction, electrical or chemical action. The total quantity of kinetic energy of an object, not the "temperature." An example is two objects of the same material, but different sizes, at the same temperature; the larger object has more heat.
Heat Base: The quantity of heat of an item of glass. Reading the heat base accounts for the amount of heat and its distribution through an object. This allows an estimation for how much heat needs to be applied to glass to work it.
Heat Base: The quantity of heat of an item of glass. Reading the heat base accounts for the amount of heat and its distribution through an object. This allows an estimation for how much heat needs to be applied to glass to work it.
Heat Sheild: Any device that is placed in front of a heat source for protection from the heat.
Heat Sheild: Any device that is placed in front of a heat source for protection from the heat.
Heat Soak: To saturate with heat for a period of time in a kiln.
Heat Soak: To saturate with heat for a period of time in a kiln.
Heat Transfer: The movement of heat through convention conduction and radiation.
Heat Transfer: The movement of heat through convention conduction and radiation.
Heintisch, Charles: Charles Heintisch ran an apothecary at Lancaster, Pa., and was a volume dealer of glass.
Heintisch, Charles: Charles Heintisch ran an apothecary at Lancaster, Pa., and was a volume dealer of glass.
Herringbone: Pressed glass pattern of alternating narrow panels that had the appearance of herringbone weave.
Herringbone: Pressed glass pattern of alternating narrow panels that had the appearance of herringbone weave.
High/medium/low switch: An electrical control switch for two kiln elements. Low: both elements work at 25% power. Medium: one elements works at 100% power. High: both elements work at 100% power.
High/medium/low switch: An electrical control switch for two kiln elements. Low: both elements work at 25% power. Medium: one elements works at 100% power. High: both elements work at 100% power.
High Rock Bottle: Sarasota water bottle, from the second half of the nineteenth century, having a blown molded depiction of a high rock and the date 1767 (the time of the springs discovery). The legend on the bottles are: "High Rock Congress Spring C&W Sarasota, N.Y."
High Rock Bottle: Sarasota water bottle, from the second half of the nineteenth century, having a blown molded depiction of a high rock and the date 1767 (the time of the springs discovery). The legend on the bottles are: "High Rock Congress Spring C&W Sarasota, N.Y."
Historical Glass: The term used for glassware that commemorate events such as political campaign and memorial wares, as well as events such as the circus, theatrics and also personalities.
Historical Glass: The term used for glassware that commemorate events such as political campaign and memorial wares, as well as events such as the circus, theatrics and also personalities.
Historic Flasks: Commemorative whiskey flasks that depict portraits of people and emblems of movements, memorials, societies, and trends.
Historic Flasks: Commemorative whiskey flasks that depict portraits of people and emblems of movements, memorials, societies, and trends.
Hobnail: Pressed glass patterns depicting bosses in the manner of hobnail heads. With reference to paperweights is a succession of V-shaped grooves cut into the base, at right angles to each other, that creates a grid pattern.
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Ice-Glass: Also verre craquele, broc a glaces. Know also as 'crackle glass', a paraison of soft glass is plunged into cold water, early in the blowing, fissuring the surface. After slow reheating and final blowing, the web of cracks enlarges, creating a frosted look and a restored surface. The French terms refer to one of two Venetian techniques revived in the 19th century.
Icicle: Pressed glass pattern of vertical fluting making a series of waves on top.
Icicle: Pressed glass pattern of vertical fluting making a series of waves on top.
Idealized Fusing Cycle: A firing schedule of two heating and four cooling stages: initial heat, rapid heat, rapid cool, anneal soak, anneal cool, cool to room temperature.
Idealized Fusing Cycle: A firing schedule of two heating and four cooling stages: initial heat, rapid heat, rapid cool, anneal soak, anneal cool, cool to room temperature.
Ihmsen Glass: Glass made the factory started c. 1810 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by Ihmsen & Company. It later became the Pennsylvania Flint Glass Works and operated through the 1890s. Production included: cut brown glass bottles engraved wares hollow wares off hand vials
Ihmsen Glass: Glass made the factory started c. 1810 at Pittsburgh, Pa., by Ihmsen & Company. It later became the Pennsylvania Flint Glass Works and operated through the 1890s. Production included: cut brown glass bottles engraved wares hollow wares off hand vials
Incandescence: Visible light emitted from a hot object.
Incandescence: Visible light emitted from a hot object.
Inclusion: An element of glass or a foreign body enclosed in glass.
Inclusion: An element of glass or a foreign body enclosed in glass.
Incrustation: The technique of enclosing a sulphide with glass.
Incrustation: The technique of enclosing a sulphide with glass.
Independence Hall Bank: Glass bank having the form of Independence Hall, c. 1876.
Independence Hall Bank: Glass bank having the form of Independence Hall, c. 1876.
Industry Tea Plate: Assumed to be Ohio glass, similar to pressed glass of the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. These pressed pieces featured a plain edged tray having a stippled background and a centered log cabin surrounded by four scenes: a farmer plowing, a glass factory, a clipper ship and another farmer plowing. Infinite Switch: A temperature switch for a kiln that determines the percentage of on time of the elements.
Industry Tea Plate: Assumed to be Ohio glass, similar to pressed glass of the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. These pressed pieces featured a plain edged tray having a stippled background and a centered log cabin surrounded by four scenes: a farmer plowing, a glass factory, a clipper ship and another farmer plowing. Infinite Switch: A temperature switch for a kiln that determines the percentage of on time of the elements.
Initial Cane: See Signature cane.
Initial Cane: See Signature cane.
Initial Heat: Unfused layers of glass are heated initially to just above the strain point and is down slowly to avoid cracking the glass.
Initial Heat: Unfused layers of glass are heated initially to just above the strain point and is down slowly to avoid cracking the glass.
Inkwell Tumblers: A drinking glass formed by blowing a parison into a "inkwell" mold, extended, shaped and sheared.
Inkwell Tumblers: A drinking glass formed by blowing a parison into a "inkwell" mold, extended, shaped and sheared.
Insufflated: A synonym for blown. 1920s reference to blown molded glassware.
Insufflated: A synonym for blown. 1920s reference to blown molded glassware.
Insulation brick: See soft brick.
Insulation brick: See soft brick.
Intaglio: Italian An engraving or wheel cutting technique cutting into substance of glass beneath the surface plane; the reverse of cameo. Also a pattern pressed into glass.
Intaglio: Italian An engraving or wheel cutting technique cutting into substance of glass beneath the surface plane; the reverse of cameo. Also a pattern pressed into glass.
Intarsia: Italian Described by Frederick Carder with this borrowed woodworker term for designs applied to the surface of colorless parison and replied with crystal.
Intarsia: Italian Described by Frederick Carder with this borrowed woodworker term for designs applied to the surface of colorless parison and replied with crystal.
Inverted Fern: Pressed glass pattern depicting fern fronds over vertical ribbing.
Inverted Fern: Pressed glass pattern depicting fern fronds over vertical ribbing.
Inverted Thumb Print: A generic reference to pressed glass patterns of thumbprints extending as bosses on the inside of a piece, rather than the outside.
Inverted Thumb Print: A generic reference to pressed glass patterns of thumbprints extending as bosses on the inside of a piece, rather than the outside.
Iridescence: See weathering. A rainbow of surface colors created with a thin coating of metal or other materials.
Iridescence: See weathering. A rainbow of surface colors created with a thin coating of metal or other materials.
Irridizing: The decoration of a glass surface with a spray of metallic salts to give an iridescent finish. Requires local exhaust ventilation.
Irridizing: The decoration of a glass surface with a spray of metallic salts to give an iridescent finish. Requires local exhaust ventilation.
Iridizing Solution: Metallic salts dissolved in weak acid that is sprayed on the surface of hot glass that produce a surface of rainbow colors.
Iridizing Solution: Metallic salts dissolved in weak acid that is sprayed on the surface of hot glass that produce a surface of rainbow colors.
Irish Glass: Connotation to fine glass. Reference to glassware made at Ballycastle, Belfast, Bublin, Cork, Londonderry, Newry, and Waterloo. Irish glass often posses slight blue smokiness, and often is cut and engraved.
Irish Glass: Connotation to fine glass. Reference to glassware made at Ballycastle, Belfast, Bublin, Cork, Londonderry, Newry, and Waterloo. Irish glass often posses slight blue smokiness, and often is cut and engraved.
Iron Oxides in Glass: Differing the amount of iron oxide in glass provides a range of colors from green, in low amounts, to yellow in higher amounts and brownish-black at yet higher amounts.
Iron Oxides in Glass: Differing the amount of iron oxide in glass provides a range of colors from green, in low amounts, to yellow in higher amounts and brownish-black at yet higher amounts.
Isaacs, Lazarus: Lazarus Isaacs came to the Philadelphia area, from London, He contracted with Henry W. Stiegel in 1773 to work at the Stiegel plant in Lancaster County, Pa., until 1774.
Isaacs, Lazarus: Lazarus Isaacs came to the Philadelphia area, from London, He contracted with Henry W. Stiegel in 1773 to work at the Stiegel plant in Lancaster County, Pa., until 1774.
Isabella Glass: The factory which was promoted by the Stanger family at Isabella, N.J. Production, from 1848 to 1868, included: bottles flask
Isabella Glass: The factory which was promoted by the Stanger family at Isabella, N.J. Production, from 1848 to 1868, included: bottles flask
Islington Glass: The glass works Islington England was directed by Mr. Rice Harris c. 1840s to 1850s. Production included: blown cut engraved plain pressed varicolored wares
Islington Glass: The glass works Islington England was directed by Mr. Rice Harris c. 1840s to 1850s. Production included: blown cut engraved plain pressed varicolored wares
Ivy: Pressed glass patter depicting vertical ribbing around a piece with superimposed ivy leaves.
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Jack Down: To use jacs to put a crease or neck into a piece.
Jacks: Also known as pucellas A tong like metal tool for shaping glass while blowing.
Jacks: Also known as pucellas A tong like metal tool for shaping glass while blowing.
Jackson Glass Works: Glasswork started in 1827 at Waterford, N.J. Production included bottles and hollow ware of: clear, pale green, blue glass.
Jackson Glass Works: Glasswork started in 1827 at Waterford, N.J. Production included bottles and hollow ware of: clear, pale green, blue glass.
Jackson - Mantua Flask: Production of this flask is traced to the Mantua Glass Works. Flask is noted because of the mistake in the cutting of the mold left the "A. Jackson" reversed. The mold was recut and production pieces show evidence of the mistake.
Jackson - Mantua Flask: Production of this flask is traced to the Mantua Glass Works. Flask is noted because of the mistake in the cutting of the mold left the "A. Jackson" reversed. The mold was recut and production pieces show evidence of the mistake.
Jacobite Glasses: Dating first from the early seventeen hundreds, these glass cemmemorated the Stuart line of Kings of England. Several forms over the years were made, and different portraits and sentiments embellished them.
Jacobite Glasses: Dating first from the early seventeen hundreds, these glass cemmemorated the Stuart line of Kings of England. Several forms over the years were made, and different portraits and sentiments embellished them.
Jacob's Coat: Pressed glass pattern of a series of patches, in d`ecor, like that of a quilt. Known in clear and yellow glass.
Jacob's Coat: Pressed glass pattern of a series of patches, in d`ecor, like that of a quilt. Known in clear and yellow glass.
Jacob's Ladder: Pressed glass pattern mimicking the cutting of lozenge, forming tiers, that appear as a ladder. The ladder panels alternate with one of fine diamond point.
Jacob's Ladder: Pressed glass pattern mimicking the cutting of lozenge, forming tiers, that appear as a ladder. The ladder panels alternate with one of fine diamond point.
Jacony Salt: Believed to be a reference by H. W. Stiegel to handled basket saltcellar.
Jacony Salt: Believed to be a reference by H. W. Stiegel to handled basket saltcellar.
Jam Pots: Also, honey pots. An early jam or honey pot with a high lid for a ladel or spoon.
Jam Pots: Also, honey pots. An early jam or honey pot with a high lid for a ladel or spoon.
Jamestown Glass: The first American glasshouse known was started at Jamestown, Va., between 1610 and 1611. The facilities, first manned by eight imported Dutch and Polish blowers, was notably crude. It is assumed it produced crude black or dark green bottle, and is known for its bead (probably in colors) production that were used for trade with the Indians. It it also known to have produced window glass.
Jamestown Glass: The first American glasshouse known was started at Jamestown, Va., between 1610 and 1611. The facilities, first manned by eight imported Dutch and Polish blowers, was notably crude. It is assumed it produced crude black or dark green bottle, and is known for its bead (probably in colors) production that were used for trade with the Indians. It it also known to have produced window glass.
Jarves, Deming: b. 1790, d. 1869. Deming Jarve became a "glass factor," wholesale sales agent in 1818 and had an interest in the New England glass Co., Cambridge, Mass. In 1825 he helped start the Boston & Sandwich Glass Company. He later help start the Cape Cod Glass Works in 1858. In 1854 he published Reminiscences of Glass Making. He is considered the second most publicized American glassmaker, after Stiegel
Jarves, Deming: b. 1790, d. 1869. Deming Jarve became a "glass factor," wholesale sales agent in 1818 and had an interest in the New England glass Co., Cambridge, Mass. In 1825 he helped start the Boston & Sandwich Glass Company. He later help start the Cape Cod Glass Works in 1858. In 1854 he published Reminiscences of Glass Making. He is considered the second most publicized American glassmaker, after Stiegel
Jasper, Jasper Ground: A mottled ground of small particles of glass often in two colors that imitate jasperstone.
Jasper, Jasper Ground: A mottled ground of small particles of glass often in two colors that imitate jasperstone.
Jeanne D'Arc Bottle: A blown molded bottle portraying a woman in early Victorian garb, holding a tablet. The mark "D.D. Deposee Lorraine" was impressed upon the bottom.
Jeanne D'Arc Bottle: A blown molded bottle portraying a woman in early Victorian garb, holding a tablet. The mark "D.D. Deposee Lorraine" was impressed upon the bottom.
Jersey City Glass Company: The factory was started in 1824 and produced untill the 1860s. Production included: bottles cut glass druggists' wares fancy bottles flasks flintware gilded glass lamps offhand work plain glass pressed glass vials
Jersey City Glass Company: The factory was started in 1824 and produced untill the 1860s. Production included: bottles cut glass druggists' wares fancy bottles flasks flintware gilded glass lamps offhand work plain glass pressed glass vials
Jimmies: Another name for frit.
Jimmies: Another name for frit.
Johnson Glass Works: Also known as the Aetna Glass Works. The factory was started in the 1790s at Frederick, Md. and was shortlived.
Johnson Glass Works: Also known as the Aetna Glass Works. The factory was started in the 1790s at Frederick, Md. and was shortlived.
Jug Decanter: See Decanter Jug.
Jug Decanter: See Decanter Jug.
Jump Ring: A small ring that connects pieces of jewerly.
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Kaleidoscope: A style of a lense shaped glass button with a tin backing and painted with colored flecks. Another type with a thin lens and back by Eglomise decoration, in black and gold, or painted in colors bay have been Dutch or French.
Kaligraphic Ornament: A Bohemian glass cutting technique that mimics calligraphy or elegant pen work applied in all over ornamentation.
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Lace: See filigree.
Lace Globe: A large globe shaped vessel that served as a lens to focus light from candles and lamps onto the work or lacemakers. Such a globe was used in professions such as: cameo and gem cutters, and watchmakers.
Lace Globe: A large globe shaped vessel that served as a lens to focus light from candles and lamps onto the work or lacemakers. Such a globe was used in professions such as: cameo and gem cutters, and watchmakers.
Lacy Glass: A mold pressed glass characterized of an fully ornamental surface of a diaper ground of dots to place the primary motif.
Lacy Glass: A mold pressed glass characterized of an fully ornamental surface of a diaper ground of dots to place the primary motif.
Lafayette Fruit Jar: A glass preserve jar that had the silhouette bust Lafayette with his name.
Lafayette Fruit Jar: A glass preserve jar that had the silhouette bust Lafayette with his name.
Lafayette Glass: Reference to glass commemorating Layfayette's visit to America in 1824 to 1825. Also used to refer to glass made at the Lafayette Glass Works.
Lafayette Glass: Reference to glass commemorating Layfayette's visit to America in 1824 to 1825. Also used to refer to glass made at the Lafayette Glass Works.
Lafayette Tumbler: Blown molded tumblers inscribed with "Welcome Lafayette." Assumed to be made for sale to banquet committees of towns visited by Lafayette.
Lafayette Tumbler: Blown molded tumblers inscribed with "Welcome Lafayette." Assumed to be made for sale to banquet committees of towns visited by Lafayette.
Lalique Glass: Glass produced by Ren'e Lalique of Paris, from 1906. Glass in the forms of blown, cut, decorated and pressed was made. Also known are French perfume bottles.
Lalique Glass: Glass produced by Ren'e Lalique of Paris, from 1906. Glass in the forms of blown, cut, decorated and pressed was made. Also known are French perfume bottles.
Laminate: Glass construction technique that glues together layers of glass.
Laminate: Glass construction technique that glues together layers of glass.
Laminated Safety Glass: Two sheets of gloat glass with a intermediate layer of transparent plastic in between by an application of heat and pressure.
Laminated Safety Glass: Two sheets of gloat glass with a intermediate layer of transparent plastic in between by an application of heat and pressure.
Lamination: The process of layering together sheet or plate glass with bonding resin.
Lamination: The process of layering together sheet or plate glass with bonding resin.
Lamp: See blowtorch.
Lamp: See blowtorch.
Lamp Bead: Tradiationally, beads of cottage industries in Murano and Venice. Beads were made at a lamp from rods of glass. Today, beads that made at a lamp.
Lamp Bead: Tradiationally, beads of cottage industries in Murano and Venice. Beads were made at a lamp from rods of glass. Today, beads that made at a lamp.
Lamps: Many forms of blown and pressed glass lamps are known. Blown varieties include cut, mold-blown, overlay, plain and in combination. Often mechanisms brought up fluid from a lamps reservoir. Glass chimneys and globes were produced for lamps, starting in the 1700s.
Lamps: Many forms of blown and pressed glass lamps are known. Blown varieties include cut, mold-blown, overlay, plain and in combination. Often mechanisms brought up fluid from a lamps reservoir. Glass chimneys and globes were produced for lamps, starting in the 1700s.
Lampwork, Lampworking: Also flame working. Techniques that apply localized heating to glass rods and tubes, with specialized lamps, lending the term 'lamp work'. The working of glass rods and tubes at a bench with a small flame of a gas blowtorch, and manipulating it with tools such as tongs, knives, forceps, shears and other small tools. Also the making of representational paperweights.
Lampwork, Lampworking: Also flame working. Techniques that apply localized heating to glass rods and tubes, with specialized lamps, lending the term 'lamp work'. The working of glass rods and tubes at a bench with a small flame of a gas blowtorch, and manipulating it with tools such as tongs, knives, forceps, shears and other small tools. Also the making of representational paperweights.
Lanay - Hautin Glass: Pressed glass from Paris, France, produced by the factory of Lanay-Hautin. Often mistaken for Sandwich glass.
Lanay - Hautin Glass: Pressed glass from Paris, France, produced by the factory of Lanay-Hautin. Often mistaken for Sandwich glass.
Lancaster Glass: The Lancaster, N.Y. factory was started in the 1840s, becoming a employee co-operative in the 1880s, and continued production to the 1900s. Production included: bottles bowls flasks jugs lily pad creamers. offhand work
Lancaster Glass: The Lancaster, N.Y. factory was started in the 1840s, becoming a employee co-operative in the 1880s, and continued production to the 1900s. Production included: bottles bowls flasks jugs lily pad creamers. offhand work
Lapidary: The lapidary is a person who uses cutting, flaking, grinding and polishing to shape and finish a product.
Lapidary: The lapidary is a person who uses cutting, flaking, grinding and polishing to shape and finish a product.
Last Supper Trays: Pressed glass trays that excellently portrayed Da Vinci's Last Supper. Assumed to date after the 1880s.
Last Supper Trays: Pressed glass trays that excellently portrayed Da Vinci's Last Supper. Assumed to date after the 1880s.
Lateral Pressing Molds: A glass mold with sliding lateral pieces that allowed the removal of pressed glass with side wall impressions.
Lateral Pressing Molds: A glass mold with sliding lateral pieces that allowed the removal of pressed glass with side wall impressions.
Latticino: Also known as latticinio. See Zanfirico. A basket weave pattern; or lace a uniformly chaotic pattern.. An archaic Italian term for describing vetro a filigrana. It is a lacy looking glass of embedded opaque white rods that form that pattern. Glassware made by embedding a vessel of clear glass with threads, or canes, of opaque--usually white--glass so as to form patterns of vertical stripes or spirals on the sides of the vessel. When the threads formed a netlike pattern with an air bubble in each free space between the threads, it was called netzglas, or net glass. A specialty of Venice in the 16th century.
Latticino: Also known as latticinio. See Zanfirico. A basket weave pattern; or lace a uniformly chaotic pattern.. An archaic Italian term for describing vetro a filigrana. It is a lacy looking glass of embedded opaque white rods that form that pattern. Glassware made by embedding a vessel of clear glass with threads, or canes, of opaque--usually white--glass so as to form patterns of vertical stripes or spirals on the sides of the vessel. When the threads formed a netlike pattern with an air bubble in each free space between the threads, it was called netzglas, or net glass. A specialty of Venice in the 16th century.
Lattimo: Italian, means milk, derived from latte . Describes an opaque white glass of tin oxide or arsenic. A traditional source of decorative canes. Single threads and collapsed tubes. a fili: Cable twists. a retorti: a retortoli: a filigrana:
Lattimo: Italian, means milk, derived from latte . Describes an opaque white glass of tin oxide or arsenic. A traditional source of decorative canes. Single threads and collapsed tubes. a fili: Cable twists. a retorti: a retortoli: a filigrana:
Laub und Bandelwerk : German Leaf and floral strap work of decorative patterns.
Laub und Bandelwerk : German Leaf and floral strap work of decorative patterns.
Lava Glass: This form of glass was produced by the Mt. Washington Glass Works from the 1870s. It is believed that volcanic lava was added to the sand and lead mixture to make the glass. Urns and vases were the dominant production, some pieces were antiqued with acids.
Lava Glass: This form of glass was produced by the Mt. Washington Glass Works from the 1870s. It is believed that volcanic lava was added to the sand and lead mixture to make the glass. Urns and vases were the dominant production, some pieces were antiqued with acids.
Lavender Oil: A binder for applications of enamels, its is a light oil made from the lavender plant.
Lavender Oil: A binder for applications of enamels, its is a light oil made from the lavender plant.
Lazerville Glass: The Lazerville Works at Wellsburg, Va., produced bottles and vials from the 1840s.
Lazerville Glass: The Lazerville Works at Wellsburg, Va., produced bottles and vials from the 1840s.
Lead Crystal: A colorless glass fluxed with 20 to 30 percentage total of lead oxide.
Lead Crystal: A colorless glass fluxed with 20 to 30 percentage total of lead oxide.
Lead Glass: See Flint Glass
Lead Glass: See Flint Glass
Leading a Crack: To cut a large tube with a starting crack ing leading it around a tube by touch ahead of the crack the molten end of a small rod.
Leading a Crack: To cut a large tube with a starting crack ing leading it around a tube by touch ahead of the crack the molten end of a small rod.
Leaf Formers: Angled or flat. Molds on the end of pliers for making imprints of leaves in hot glass.
Leaf Formers: Angled or flat. Molds on the end of pliers for making imprints of leaves in hot glass.
Leaf Patterns: Many forms and variations of leaf exist. A partial listing includes: Acorn Barberry Budded Ivy Cabbage Holly Ivy Ivy in snow Maple leaf Sprig Stippled Ivy
Leaf Patterns: Many forms and variations of leaf exist. A partial listing includes: Acorn Barberry Budded Ivy Cabbage Holly Ivy Ivy in snow Maple leaf Sprig Stippled Ivy
Lee: Pressed glass of the Empire period, named for Ruth Webb Lee. The pattern has a double line or beveled pointed ovals with the point down and around the piece.
Lee: Pressed glass of the Empire period, named for Ruth Webb Lee. The pattern has a double line or beveled pointed ovals with the point down and around the piece.
Leerdam: Fine modern glass colored in shades of green, gray, blue, purple, and yellow. Manufactured by the Royal Leerdam Company of The Netherlands, Leerdam glass is one of the best-known kinds of glass in the world today. Unica, glass pieces of especially high quality, are also produced by this company.
Leerdam: Fine modern glass colored in shades of green, gray, blue, purple, and yellow. Manufactured by the Royal Leerdam Company of The Netherlands, Leerdam glass is one of the best-known kinds of glass in the world today. Unica, glass pieces of especially high quality, are also produced by this company.
Lehmann, Caspar: A metal engraver employed by Emperor Rudolph II who developed methods for cutting and engraving glass. Lehr: Italian, corruption of l'era. Apparatus for annealing glass, consisting of a long continuous annealing oven that moves pieces along by hand or automation to different temperatures of stages of annealing. Also, used to fire enamels and luster painting on glass objects at low temperatures.
Lehmann, Caspar: A metal engraver employed by Emperor Rudolph II who developed methods for cutting and engraving glass. Lehr: Italian, corruption of l'era. Apparatus for annealing glass, consisting of a long continuous annealing oven that moves pieces along by hand or automation to different temperatures of stages of annealing. Also, used to fire enamels and luster painting on glass objects at low temperatures.
Lennox Glass Works: Factory started in 1854 at Lennox, Mass. and operated under different management until the 1870s. Production included: bottles druggist wares paperweights plate glass specialties vials
Lennox Glass Works: Factory started in 1854 at Lennox, Mass. and operated under different management until the 1870s. Production included: bottles druggist wares paperweights plate glass specialties vials
Libby Hats: Commemorative frosted glass hats sold at the World's Clumbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. Marked with "Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio" impressed inside the crown.
Libby Hats: Commemorative frosted glass hats sold at the World's Clumbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. Marked with "Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio" impressed inside the crown.
Liberty Bell: Pressed glass pattern depicting the Liberty Bell sold at the 1876 Centennial. Gillinkder & Sons produced plates and novelties depicting the Liberty Bell that were marked with "100 years ago," and dated 1776-1876.
Liberty Bell: Pressed glass pattern depicting the Liberty Bell sold at the 1876 Centennial. Gillinkder & Sons produced plates and novelties depicting the Liberty Bell that were marked with "100 years ago," and dated 1776-1876.
Liberty Glass Company: Sapulpa, Okla. Originally started as the Coffeyville Glass Company, Caffeyville, Kansas, in the 1900s by George F. Collins. The factory produced pressed glasswares until it was destroyed by fire. Collins went to Sapulpa, starting the Premium Glass Company that produced pressed tableware. Collins went into partnership with H.U. Bartlett and operated two plants as Bartlett-Collens Glass Company that split up in 1918. One plant retained the name and the other took the name Liberty Glass Company.
Liberty Glass Company: Sapulpa, Okla. Originally started as the Coffeyville Glass Company, Caffeyville, Kansas, in the 1900s by George F. Collins. The factory produced pressed glasswares until it was destroyed by fire. Collins went to Sapulpa, starting the Premium Glass Company that produced pressed tableware. Collins went into partnership with H.U. Bartlett and operated two plants as Bartlett-Collens Glass Company that split up in 1918. One plant retained the name and the other took the name Liberty Glass Company.
Lighthouse Bottle: c. 1890s A bottle shaped like a lighthouse sitting on granite blocks, with the top clear panel depicting the lighted section of the lighthouse.
Lighthouse Bottle: c. 1890s A bottle shaped like a lighthouse sitting on granite blocks, with the top clear panel depicting the lighted section of the lighthouse.
Lily Pad Decoration: A vessel characterized by a gather drawn up around the base into four or more curved and rounded skin-like projections.
Lily Pad Decoration: A vessel characterized by a gather drawn up around the base into four or more curved and rounded skin-like projections.
Lime Glass: Glass that has no flint or lead, which characteristics are achieved by chalk, sodium bicarbonate, sand and niter. The glass was developed by Leighton at the plant of Hobbs, Bruckunier, at Wheeling, Va., c. 1860. Lime glass became the choice for pressed glass by 1866.
Lime Glass: Glass that has no flint or lead, which characteristics are achieved by chalk, sodium bicarbonate, sand and niter. The glass was developed by Leighton at the plant of Hobbs, Bruckunier, at Wheeling, Va., c. 1860. Lime glass became the choice for pressed glass by 1866.
Lincoln Drape: Pressed glass pattern depicting swags of drapery with large pendent tassels.
Lincoln Drape: Pressed glass pattern depicting swags of drapery with large pendent tassels.
Linear Coefficient of Expansion (LCE): See "Thermal Coefficient of Expansion."
Linear Coefficient of Expansion (LCE): See "Thermal Coefficient of Expansion."
Liners: Early silver dishes were damaged by salt, glass liner are used to protect the metal and often has patterns that display the color of the glass liner.
Liners: Early silver dishes were damaged by salt, glass liner are used to protect the metal and often has patterns that display the color of the glass liner.
Lion Glass: Pressed glass pattern depicting the head, or figure of a crouching lion with extended forelegs as knobs on cover, or the depiction of lions on clear or frosted bands. Also a pattern of lion heads on stems and figures on plates.
Lion Glass: Pressed glass pattern depicting the head, or figure of a crouching lion with extended forelegs as knobs on cover, or the depiction of lions on clear or frosted bands. Also a pattern of lion heads on stems and figures on plates.
Liners: Glass liners that protect metal (silver in days of old) dishes from pitting damages from salt. Blue is the most popular color for liners.
Liners: Glass liners that protect metal (silver in days of old) dishes from pitting damages from salt. Blue is the most popular color for liners.
Lion Mask Stem: A blown stem made in a mold of two festooned connected lions' masks.
Lion Mask Stem: A blown stem made in a mold of two festooned connected lions' masks.
Lip: A gather of glass or bead on the edge of an open tube.
Lip: A gather of glass or bead on the edge of an open tube.
Lip Wrap: A thread of often colored glass added to the mouth of a vessel usually before fully opening it.
Lip Wrap: A thread of often colored glass added to the mouth of a vessel usually before fully opening it.
Lipper: A wooden tool used to widen lips and shape rims and spouts.
Lipper: A wooden tool used to widen lips and shape rims and spouts.
Liquidus temperature: The temperature point where crystals dissolve when melting, or form when cooling.
Liquidus temperature: The temperature point where crystals dissolve when melting, or form when cooling.
Liquid gilding: See gold painting.
Liquid gilding: See gold painting.
Little Harry's Night Lamp: A small lamp about one and a half inches high, thought to have been made at Sandwich.
Little Harry's Night Lamp: A small lamp about one and a half inches high, thought to have been made at Sandwich.
Local Exhaust Ventilation: Ventilation that removes hazardous fumes or vapors from a work area and brings in fresh air. A fume hood is an example of this type of ventilation.
Local Exhaust Ventilation: Ventilation that removes hazardous fumes or vapors from a work area and brings in fresh air. A fume hood is an example of this type of ventilation.
Lockport Glass: Factory started at Lockport, New York, in 1840 and operated to the twentieth century. Production included: bottles flasks hollow wares
Lockport Glass: Factory started at Lockport, New York, in 1840 and operated to the twentieth century. Production included: bottles flasks hollow wares
Log Cabin: Pattern used on glass in the Harrison presidential campaign. Pattern of a log cabin on bottles, cup plates, and pressed wares.
Log Cabin: Pattern used on glass in the Harrison presidential campaign. Pattern of a log cabin on bottles, cup plates, and pressed wares.
Logan, John, Plate: Portrait plate of pressed glass with the depiction of John Logan, a vice presidential candidate of the James G. Blaine campaign. It was produced in 1884 and has a border of Gothic pointed elements and circular scallops.
Logan, John, Plate: Portrait plate of pressed glass with the depiction of John Logan, a vice presidential candidate of the James G. Blaine campaign. It was produced in 1884 and has a border of Gothic pointed elements and circular scallops.
Long Barrel Bottle: A bitters bottle having the legend "Bourbon Whiskey Bitters," and the form of a high barrel with ten hoops.
Long Barrel Bottle: A bitters bottle having the legend "Bourbon Whiskey Bitters," and the form of a high barrel with ten hoops.
Loop & Dart: Pressed glass pattern, having many variations. The designs main element is a series of loops with pendent (hanging) darts.
Loop & Dart: Pressed glass pattern, having many variations. The designs main element is a series of loops with pendent (hanging) darts.
Loop & Jewel: Pressed glass pattern having delicate festoons of the classic Greek tradition.
Loop & Jewel: Pressed glass pattern having delicate festoons of the classic Greek tradition.
Loop - Drag: Decorations of glass threads applied to glass in clear or contrasting colors. These are tooled in forms of loops onto the glass object and marvered into the surface of the hot glass object.
Loop - Drag: Decorations of glass threads applied to glass in clear or contrasting colors. These are tooled in forms of loops onto the glass object and marvered into the surface of the hot glass object.
Loop Stich: The lace work of rows of connected loops, uniform in shape and size.
Loop Stich: The lace work of rows of connected loops, uniform in shape and size.
Lorenz Glass: Glass produced by Frederick Lorenz, a German who learned at, and purchased the O'Hara Works at Pittsburgh in about 1819, and operated it until approximately 1838. Lorenz also purchased other glass factories and was a abundant producer.
Lorenz Glass: Glass produced by Frederick Lorenz, a German who learned at, and purchased the O'Hara Works at Pittsburgh in about 1819, and operated it until approximately 1838. Lorenz also purchased other glass factories and was a abundant producer.
Lost Wax Process: A casting process that uses a wax model embedded in clay and baked, melting the wax ( which is lost ), creating a mold into which molten glass can be poured. The mold is broken, and the glass object retrieved.
Lost Wax Process: A casting process that uses a wax model embedded in clay and baked, melting the wax ( which is lost ), creating a mold into which molten glass can be poured. The mold is broken, and the glass object retrieved.
Louisville Glass: Reference to glass made in Louisville, KY by the Kentucky Glass Works at a time when Louisville rival Cincinnati and St. Louis for Mississippi Valley trade. In 1850 the plant advertised private mold and bottle production. By 1860 production included: confectioners' glass druggists' wares lamps tumblers
Louisville Glass: Reference to glass made in Louisville, KY by the Kentucky Glass Works at a time when Louisville rival Cincinnati and St. Louis for Mississippi Valley trade. In 1850 the plant advertised private mold and bottle production. By 1860 production included: confectioners' glass druggists' wares lamps tumblers
Ludlow Glass: Glass made by Ludlow, Mass., Manufacturing company from the mid 1810s. Production is believed to been bottles, and possibly off hand work. Luster, Lusters: Metal oxides suspended in organic binders, leave a thin layer of meal oxides that fuse to the glass during firing.
Ludlow Glass: Glass made by Ludlow, Mass., Manufacturing company from the mid 1810s. Production is believed to been bottles, and possibly off hand work. Luster, Lusters: Metal oxides suspended in organic binders, leave a thin layer of meal oxides that fuse to the glass during firing.
Lustred Glass: Also luster painting. The use of metal oxides such as silver and copper to create a stain when fired. The flame reduces the silver and copper and appears as a yellow to reddish brown films that fuse onto the glass as a lustrous sheen.
Lustred Glass: Also luster painting. The use of metal oxides such as silver and copper to create a stain when fired. The flame reduces the silver and copper and appears as a yellow to reddish brown films that fuse onto the glass as a lustrous sheen.
Lutz, Nicholas: A glass blower from Saint Louis, Lorraine who came to the US and worked at the Dorflinger's Plant at White Mills, at Boston & Sandwich factory, at Mt. Washington Glass Works and at Somerville, Mass. He was a noted glass blower that worked in the Venetian manner, striped and cane glass, paperweights and luxury specialties.
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Macedoine: Paperweights that contain mostly filigree twists.
Maestro: Italian for master. The Mastro usually head a team of glass workers.
Maestro: Italian for master. The Mastro usually head a team of glass workers.
Magic Inkstand: A bottle that held a solid ink in the form of a salt, that inked several fillings of water.
Magic Inkstand: A bottle that held a solid ink in the form of a salt, that inked several fillings of water.
Magnum: Paperweight over 3 1/4 inches in diameter.
Magnum: Paperweight over 3 1/4 inches in diameter.
Magnum Decanter: Containers that date from the eighteenth century and held two or more quarts of liquid.
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Nailhead: A pressed glass pattern displaying broad panels of lattice work and having nailheads or bosslike elements at the intersections.
Nailheads, Glass: Decorative glass heads for nails and range from a quarter inch to three inches; and may be blown, cut,engraved, molded or pressed glass. Glass nailheads were first produced in the eighteenth century.
Nailheads, Glass: Decorative glass heads for nails and range from a quarter inch to three inches; and may be blown, cut,engraved, molded or pressed glass. Glass nailheads were first produced in the eighteenth century.
Nailsea Glass: Any glass produced at Nailsea, England. Denotes a style of mottled and striated glass of two or more colors that are mixed with milk white glass and having loop, mottled, splashed or swirled effects.
Nailsea Glass: Any glass produced at Nailsea, England. Denotes a style of mottled and striated glass of two or more colors that are mixed with milk white glass and having loop, mottled, splashed or swirled effects.
Napoleon Bottle: Bottles having the shape of Napoleon. It is possible attribution error as the bottles may date from the mid 1800s.
Napoleon Bottle: Bottles having the shape of Napoleon. It is possible attribution error as the bottles may date from the mid 1800s.
Neck: The constricted part of a vessel by the lip. To cut in a transfer point by pressing in with jacks, usually by the moile.
Neck: The constricted part of a vessel by the lip. To cut in a transfer point by pressing in with jacks, usually by the moile.
Neck Seal: Chestnut shaped bottles having a rounded bottom and a seal impressed on the prunt of glass, or a gob of glass on the neck. Also known as bootleg or saddle bottles.
Neck Seal: Chestnut shaped bottles having a rounded bottom and a seal impressed on the prunt of glass, or a gob of glass on the neck. Also known as bootleg or saddle bottles.
Neck Wrap: Also called a moile wrap. A way of keeping heat at the neck or moile by adding a hot gather of glass around it. This can prevent cracking if the area is becoming stressed.
Neck Wrap: Also called a moile wrap. A way of keeping heat at the neck or moile by adding a hot gather of glass around it. This can prevent cracking if the area is becoming stressed.
Nelly Bly Glass: Glass that honors the newspaper woman Elizabeth Cockrane, "Nelly Bly." Production generally was novelty glass, the lamp and platter set depicting Nelly in traveling garb was widely distributed.
Nelly Bly Glass: Glass that honors the newspaper woman Elizabeth Cockrane, "Nelly Bly." Production generally was novelty glass, the lamp and platter set depicting Nelly in traveling garb was widely distributed.
Neologist: A vague reference, often as a joke word, for people who work with neon.
Neologist: A vague reference, often as a joke word, for people who work with neon.
Nerd: American name for avoleo.
Nerd: American name for avoleo.
Nevers Figures: Glass toys in the forms of glass figurines and animal like objects produced at Nevers, France. Used in creches.
Nevers Figures: Glass toys in the forms of glass figurines and animal like objects produced at Nevers, France. Used in creches.
New Albany Glass Works: Glass works started in c. 1812 at New Albany, PA. that operated into the 1890s.
New Albany Glass Works: Glass works started in c. 1812 at New Albany, PA. that operated into the 1890s.
New Amsterdam Glass: Production from the two glass houses of the Dutch community of New Amsterdam, (Manhattan). The works of Johan Smede' started in c. 1650. The works of Evert Duykinks, started in c. 1652.
New Amsterdam Glass: Production from the two glass houses of the Dutch community of New Amsterdam, (Manhattan). The works of Johan Smede' started in c. 1650. The works of Evert Duykinks, started in c. 1652.
New Boston Glass Co.: The glass company started at Perryopolis, PA., in the 1810s.
New Boston Glass Co.: The glass company started at Perryopolis, PA., in the 1810s.
New Bremen Glass: See Amelung Glass.
New Bremen Glass: See Amelung Glass.
New England Bottle Company: Glass works at Cambridge, Mass., started by Deming Jarves in 1826 and produced through 1826. Production included: bottles carboys ink bottles jam pots mustard jars snuff bottles etceteras
New England Bottle Company: Glass works at Cambridge, Mass., started by Deming Jarves in 1826 and produced through 1826. Production included: bottles carboys ink bottles jam pots mustard jars snuff bottles etceteras
New England Glass Company (NEGC): See Cambridge Glass.
New England Glass Company (NEGC): See Cambridge Glass.
New Geneva Glass: Glass house started by Albert Gallatin, in 1797, at New Geneva, PA. The factory was purchased in 1803 by the Kramers, partners and employee and operated to 1847. Production of free blown and pattern molded glass included: bottles bowls creamers footed bowls jars flips goblets milk bowls tumblers sugar bowls etceteras
New Geneva Glass: Glass house started by Albert Gallatin, in 1797, at New Geneva, PA. The factory was purchased in 1803 by the Kramers, partners and employee and operated to 1847. Production of free blown and pattern molded glass included: bottles bowls creamers footed bowls jars flips goblets milk bowls tumblers sugar bowls etceteras
New Granite Glass Works: Glass works started by at Stoddard, H.H., in 1865 and operated through 1871. Production included: bottles hollow wares snuff jars
New Granite Glass Works: Glass works started by at Stoddard, H.H., in 1865 and operated through 1871. Production included: bottles hollow wares snuff jars
New London Glass Works: The glass works started in the 1850s at New London, Conn., and operated through the 1860s or 1870s. Production included: bottles flasks jars vials
New London Glass Works: The glass works started in the 1850s at New London, Conn., and operated through the 1860s or 1870s. Production included: bottles flasks jars vials
New York City Glass Works: See Gilliland Glass. Started by Stephen Long in c. 1820. Production included: frosted glassware plain glassware novelties
New York City Glass Works: See Gilliland Glass. Started by Stephen Long in c. 1820. Production included: frosted glassware plain glassware novelties
Newcastle on Tyne Glass: Glass produced at this location in England since the sixteenth century and imported to America from the eighteenth century and through the nineteenth century.
Newcastle on Tyne Glass: Glass produced at this location in England since the sixteenth century and imported to America from the eighteenth century and through the nineteenth century.
Newel Finials: Glass balls for decorating the tops of stair newel post.
Newel Finials: Glass balls for decorating the tops of stair newel post.
Newel Posts: The paperweight post on the end of a flight of stairs that supports the handrail.
Newel Posts: The paperweight post on the end of a flight of stairs that supports the handrail.
Niagara Falls Platter: Pressed glass platters depicting a frosted design of the falls with a clear sky.
Niagara Falls Platter: Pressed glass platters depicting a frosted design of the falls with a clear sky.
Nibbles: Hand groused frit. Nipt (Nipp'D) Diamond Waies: Neighboring ribs or embedded rods on a vessel of hot glass are pinched or nipped to produce a diamond pattern. The ribs sometimes are made with mezza-forma. The design is Venetian and the term Ravenscroft (c 17th century).
Nibbles: Hand groused frit. Nipt (Nipp'D) Diamond Waies: Neighboring ribs or embedded rods on a vessel of hot glass are pinched or nipped to produce a diamond pattern. The ribs sometimes are made with mezza-forma. The design is Venetian and the term Ravenscroft (c 17th century).
Northwood, H.: A glass expert who came to America from England in the 1880s, working at the LaBelle and Bridgeport (Buckeye) Glass Works at Bridgeport, Ohio. He operated his own works at Indiana, PA., from the 1890s to 1900s. He was known for his fine pressed wares in "custard glass," a off white milky glass.
Northwood, H.: A glass expert who came to America from England in the 1880s, working at the LaBelle and Bridgeport (Buckeye) Glass Works at Bridgeport, Ohio. He operated his own works at Indiana, PA., from the 1890s to 1900s. He was known for his fine pressed wares in "custard glass," a off white milky glass.
Nosegay: See flat bouquet.
Nosegay: See flat bouquet.
Notched: Folded edges or V-shaped cuts such as in cut glass.
Notched: Folded edges or V-shaped cuts such as in cut glass.
Novelties: The general term for small pieces.
Novelties: The general term for small pieces.
Novelty Bottles and Vials: Numerous varieties of glass produced from the mid eighteenth century through the twentieth century.
Novelty Bottles and Vials: Numerous varieties of glass produced from the mid eighteenth century through the twentieth century.
Nuppenbecher: German Beakers characterized with green bases and thorn like prunts.
Nuppenbecher: German Beakers characterized with green bases and thorn like prunts.
Nursing Bottles: Also known as "ninny bottles" and were made at American glass houses from the mid-eighteenth century. Early bottles were conical and engraved and cut, often fitted with silver nipples. Later models were bulbous or flat ovals with glass nipples and often had a filling and cleaning hole at the center of one side..
Obsidian: Native Volcanic Glass.
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Oenocheo: Greek An ovoid jug with large loop handle and flat bases and often a trefoil lip for pouring.
Oenocheo: Greek An ovoid jug with large loop handle and flat bases and often a trefoil lip for pouring.
Off Hand Glass: US, see frigger. Hand made glass, often other than normal production work, such as done for pleasure.
Off Hand Glass: US, see frigger. Hand made glass, often other than normal production work, such as done for pleasure.
Off Hand Glass Blowing: The gathering and working of a gob of hot glass on the end of a hllow metal tube or rod.
Off Hand Glass Blowing: The gathering and working of a gob of hot glass on the end of a hllow metal tube or rod.
Ogival: See Diamond. Diamond form.
Ogival: See Diamond. Diamond form.
O'Hara (Pittsburgh) Glass: The O'Hara Works was the name used for several factories consolidated by the Lyon interest at Pittsburgh during the 1870s. Production included: cut glass engraved wares fine blown wares fine pressed wares gilded glass specialties
O'Hara (Pittsburgh) Glass: The O'Hara Works was the name used for several factories consolidated by the Lyon interest at Pittsburgh during the 1870s. Production included: cut glass engraved wares fine blown wares fine pressed wares gilded glass specialties
Ohio Glass: Reference to glass made at one of the many Ohio glass plants.
Ohio Glass: Reference to glass made at one of the many Ohio glass plants.
Opal Glass: A dense white glass with impressed over all with floral pattern. Dishes have a looped openwork rims or borders. The ribbed and banded patterns have panels and floral medallions.
Opal Glass: A dense white glass with impressed over all with floral pattern. Dishes have a looped openwork rims or borders. The ribbed and banded patterns have panels and floral medallions.
Opalescent Glass: Glass the has a milky iridescence like an opal created by William Barr of Steubenville, Ohio, c. 1888.
Opalescent Glass: Glass the has a milky iridescence like an opal created by William Barr of Steubenville, Ohio, c. 1888.
Opalescent Rib: Pressed glass pattern with vertical ribs, swirled or plain, of opal or bluish opal glass. Opaline: A book shaped or rectangular paperweigh of opaqe or transparent opaline glass that has a somewhat raised nosegay, oval medallion or milleifiori patterns inside. A Clichy line of work.
Opalescent Rib: Pressed glass pattern with vertical ribs, swirled or plain, of opal or bluish opal glass. Opaline: A book shaped or rectangular paperweigh of opaqe or transparent opaline glass that has a somewhat raised nosegay, oval medallion or milleifiori patterns inside. A Clichy line of work.
Opaque: Not transparent or translucent, but impenetrable by light.
Opaque: Not transparent or translucent, but impenetrable by light.
Opaque twist: Also known as the cotton twist in US The use of opaque white and other colored rods that are twisted and patterned, then drawn into thin, workable rods for decorative work.
Opaque twist: Also known as the cotton twist in US The use of opaque white and other colored rods that are twisted and patterned, then drawn into thin, workable rods for decorative work.
Opaque White: See milk-white glass.
Opaque White: See milk-white glass.
Openwork: Reference to the edges or rims of glass with an openwork patter of loops, swirls, and swags after the style of nineteenth century porcelain. Generally it was pressed in milk white glass, and often dates after 1865.
Openwork: Reference to the edges or rims of glass with an openwork patter of loops, swirls, and swags after the style of nineteenth century porcelain. Generally it was pressed in milk white glass, and often dates after 1865.
Optic Mold: A upside-down cone shaped mold with internal ribs to form glass. Optics are usually made of aluminum, brass or bronze and come numerous shape and sizes.
Optic Mold: A upside-down cone shaped mold with internal ribs to form glass. Optics are usually made of aluminum, brass or bronze and come numerous shape and sizes.
Optical Glass: Used in microscopes and cameras, is prepared more carefully than any other glass. It must be free of bubbles, ripples, or streaks. The two main classes of optical glass are crown glass, which has low refraction and dispersion, and flint glass, which has high refraction and dispersion.
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Pacific Glass Works: Glass works started in 1867 at Potrero, CA. Production included: bottles hollow wares
Pad: The area of a hot shop where glass blowing takes place.
Pad: The area of a hot shop where glass blowing takes place.
Paddle: Also block. A curved wooden paddle for shapeing the dome of a paperweight. A wooden paddel for shaping glass, that can be soaked in water. Also can be used to offer protection form heat.
Paddle: Also block. A curved wooden paddle for shapeing the dome of a paperweight. A wooden paddel for shaping glass, that can be soaked in water. Also can be used to offer protection form heat.
P.A.E. Hat: Souvenir glass hats of Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo,N.Y., dated 1901.
P.A.E. Hat: Souvenir glass hats of Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo,N.Y., dated 1901.
Palmer, Richard: A Philadelphia importer of Bristol and Irish glassware during the 1790s to 1800s.
Palmer, Richard: A Philadelphia importer of Bristol and Irish glassware during the 1790s to 1800s.
Palmette: Pressed glass patter depicting palm leaf and palm leaf in diamond pointing with stipple band.
Palmette: Pressed glass patter depicting palm leaf and palm leaf in diamond pointing with stipple band.
Panel Weight: Paperweights with clusters of canes making sections separated by either: canes,exposed section of the ground, filigree twist, or rods.
Panel Weight: Paperweights with clusters of canes making sections separated by either: canes,exposed section of the ground, filigree twist, or rods.
Pantaloon Eagle: Early flasks that featuring an eagle with large legs as if surround in feathered pantaloons.
Pantaloon Eagle: Early flasks that featuring an eagle with large legs as if surround in feathered pantaloons.
Pantin Glass: The company started by E. S. Monot at La Villette, by Paris, as the Monot et Cie. It moved to Pantin, No. 84 rue de Paris. Production included: chandeliers crystal glasses paperweights. perfume bottles tumblers
Pantin Glass: The company started by E. S. Monot at La Villette, by Paris, as the Monot et Cie. It moved to Pantin, No. 84 rue de Paris. Production included: chandeliers crystal glasses paperweights. perfume bottles tumblers
Paper: The term used for folded wet newspaper. It's flexible and offers protection to use in shaping hot glass by the feel of hand.
Paper: The term used for folded wet newspaper. It's flexible and offers protection to use in shaping hot glass by the feel of hand.
Paper Glass: A development of Schonbein, of Basle, Switzerland (after his invention of gun cotton). Paper, treated with a catalytic, was made transparent, strong and flexible to form into bottles and window panes.
Paper Glass: A development of Schonbein, of Basle, Switzerland (after his invention of gun cotton). Paper, treated with a catalytic, was made transparent, strong and flexible to form into bottles and window panes.
Paper Weights: The fashioning of paper weights, as a vogue, started in the 1830s. A glass ball around a decrative pattern. Refers to latticino, millefiori and colored weights,( but not sulphides), as well as forms such as: animals, fruits and flowers.
Paper Weights: The fashioning of paper weights, as a vogue, started in the 1830s. A glass ball around a decrative pattern. Refers to latticino, millefiori and colored weights,( but not sulphides), as well as forms such as: animals, fruits and flowers.
Paraison: Or parison. See gather. Contemporarily, denotes the balloon of glass at the end of a blow pipe expanding the gather of glass, the term emphasizes the first bubble.
Paraison: Or parison. See gather. Contemporarily, denotes the balloon of glass at the end of a blow pipe expanding the gather of glass, the term emphasizes the first bubble.
Pardessus, S. J.: Glass producer on New York City during the 1850s. Specialized in glass shades or bells of clear glass. Also produced sheet glass that was fluted white enameled glass and plan fluted panes for greenhouses, roofing and architecture.
Pardessus, S. J.: Glass producer on New York City during the 1850s. Specialized in glass shades or bells of clear glass. Also produced sheet glass that was fluted white enameled glass and plan fluted panes for greenhouses, roofing and architecture.
Pastry Mold: Millefiori cane which flare or skirt out on the basal end.
Pastry Mold: Millefiori cane which flare or skirt out on the basal end.
Pate de verre: Literally means glass paste The technique of grinding or crushing glass into a paste and casting it into mold.
Pate de verre: Literally means glass paste The technique of grinding or crushing glass into a paste and casting it into mold.
Pattern Glass:
Pattern Glass:
Pattern Mold: Reference to glass that is patterned in a pattern mold before complete blowing. Metal molds that have ridges or serration on the interior into which the hot gather of glass was blown and impressed with the pattern and then worked into final form.
Pattern Mold: Reference to glass that is patterned in a pattern mold before complete blowing. Metal molds that have ridges or serration on the interior into which the hot gather of glass was blown and impressed with the pattern and then worked into final form.
Patterned: With reference to paperweights it is pattern of millefiori weights making groups of florest.
Patterned: With reference to paperweights it is pattern of millefiori weights making groups of florest.
Peabody Pattern: Pressed English glass having a registry mark and a crown surrounded by sixteen stars and the name "George Peabody."
Peabody Pattern: Pressed English glass having a registry mark and a crown surrounded by sixteen stars and the name "George Peabody."
Peach Glass: Also known as peachblow. A yellow tinted glass made with gold oxide attributing a ruby red effect and opacity. Its color was created by reheating during blowing and in annealing ovens.
Peach Glass: Also known as peachblow. A yellow tinted glass made with gold oxide attributing a ruby red effect and opacity. Its color was created by reheating during blowing and in annealing ovens.
Peachblow: Reference to glass fashioned after the noted Morgan peachblow porcelain vase. Peachblow is characterized by peach like tints in gradations over the milk white base. The line of "peachblow" included: bowls creamers lamps lampshades mugs tumblers
Peachblow: Reference to glass fashioned after the noted Morgan peachblow porcelain vase. Peachblow is characterized by peach like tints in gradations over the milk white base. The line of "peachblow" included: bowls creamers lamps lampshades mugs tumblers
Peacock Eye: Pressed glass pattern of the 1840s, fashioned eighteenth century art form in Hungary.
Peacock Eye: Pressed glass pattern of the 1840s, fashioned eighteenth century art form in Hungary.
Pearl: A pressed glass element consisting of a raised pearl shaped dot. A small gob of hot glass added during blowing that can be tooled, drawn or nipped.
Pearl: A pressed glass element consisting of a raised pearl shaped dot. A small gob of hot glass added during blowing that can be tooled, drawn or nipped.
Pebbles: See Rock Crystal.
Pebbles: See Rock Crystal.
Peephole: A plugged hole in a kiln for observation,
Peephole: A plugged hole in a kiln for observation,
Peg Lamp: An adapter for candlesticks consisting of a glass receptacle to hold lamp fluid and a peg at the bottom to fit the candlestick. The peg lamp supplied more light than the candle it replaced.
Peg Lamp: An adapter for candlesticks consisting of a glass receptacle to hold lamp fluid and a peg at the bottom to fit the candlestick. The peg lamp supplied more light than the candle it replaced.
Pedestal: Tall stemmed. Once a stem type called Silesian in England.
Pedestal: Tall stemmed. Once a stem type called Silesian in England.
Pedastal Weight: See footed weight.
Pedastal Weight: See footed weight.
Peephole: A hole of a kiln that has a plug that can be removed for viewing.
Peephole: A hole of a kiln that has a plug that can be removed for viewing.
Pell-Mell: See scrambled.
Pell-Mell: See scrambled.
Penholder: Also shot glass. A short flanged vase with a paperweight base. The originals were filled with shot to hold quill pens.
Penholder: Also shot glass. A short flanged vase with a paperweight base. The originals were filled with shot to hold quill pens.
Penrose Glass: Early nineteenth century glass made at Waterford, Ireland; the name was molded in the bottoms of pieces. Production included: decanters lamp gases vases
Penrose Glass: Early nineteenth century glass made at Waterford, Ireland; the name was molded in the bottoms of pieces. Production included: decanters lamp gases vases
Perfume Bottles: Perhaps the most varied form of glass produced by manufacturers.
Perfume Bottles: Perhaps the most varied form of glass produced by manufacturers.
Petal and Loop: Also known as "Loop Without Petal." Pressed glass pattern that is a variation of Ashburton, displaying large loops with indented outlines.
Petal and Loop: Also known as "Loop Without Petal." Pressed glass pattern that is a variation of Ashburton, displaying large loops with indented outlines.
Petal & Loop Candlestick: Candlesticks with a petal making the socket and a looped base candlestick of the Colonial type.
Petal & Loop Candlestick: Candlesticks with a petal making the socket and a looped base candlestick of the Colonial type.
Peterboro Glass: The glass factory started at Peterboro, NY. about the late 1780s or 1790, initially for making window glass. Different management produced to the late 1820s:. bottles decanters flasks jars offhand work window glass
Peterboro Glass: The glass factory started at Peterboro, NY. about the late 1780s or 1790, initially for making window glass. Different management produced to the late 1820s:. bottles decanters flasks jars offhand work window glass
Philadelphia: Pressed glass pattern having alternate loops, plain and horizontally ridged.
Philadelphia: Pressed glass pattern having alternate loops, plain and horizontally ridged.
Philadelphia Glass: The first glass factory in Philadelphia was started in 1683. In 1771 the Philadelphia Glass Works was organized. It was also known as "American Flint Glass Manufactory." It operated under different management.. In 1804 the Philadelphia Glass House name was changed to the Kensington Glass Works.
Philadelphia Glass: The first glass factory in Philadelphia was started in 1683. In 1771 the Philadelphia Glass Works was organized. It was also known as "American Flint Glass Manufactory." It operated under different management.. In 1804 the Philadelphia Glass House name was changed to the Kensington Glass Works.
Phillips, William: William Phillips started a glass factory at Pittsburgh during the early 1840s. Production included: cut wares plain glass pressed glass
Phillips, William: William Phillips started a glass factory at Pittsburgh during the early 1840s. Production included: cut wares plain glass pressed glass
Phoenix Glass Works (Philipsburg): The works was started in the 1880s at Philipsburg, PA. Production included: blown wares cameo glass Venetian style eleganices
Phoenix Glass Works (Philipsburg): The works was started in the 1880s at Philipsburg, PA. Production included: blown wares cameo glass Venetian style eleganices
Phoenix Glass Works (Boston): The works was started in the 1820s and made flintwares to the 1970s.
Phoenix Glass Works (Boston): The works was started in the 1820s and made flintwares to the 1970s.
Phoenix Glass Works (Pittsburgh): The works was started by the McCully interest in the 1830s and operated to the 1870s. Production included: bottles containers vials etceteras
Phoenix Glass Works (Pittsburgh): The works was started by the McCully interest in the 1830s and operated to the 1870s. Production included: bottles containers vials etceteras
Photosensitive glass: Glass that is sensitive to exposure to ultraviolet radiation or heat treatment.
Photosensitive glass: Glass that is sensitive to exposure to ultraviolet radiation or heat treatment.
Piedouche: See footed weight.
Piedouche: See footed weight.
"Pick Out Center" Method: The technique for cutting glass tubes by forming the end then so the the speed of the torch flame will blow a hole in the tube.
"Pick Out Center" Method: The technique for cutting glass tubes by forming the end then so the the speed of the torch flame will blow a hole in the tube.
Pickett: A late pressed glass pattern.
Pickett: A late pressed glass pattern.
Pickle Jars: Between 1840 and 1890 a large variety of containers for pickles were produced. The more decorative jars were made to be used as vases when emptied.
Pickle Jars: Between 1840 and 1890 a large variety of containers for pickles were produced. The more decorative jars were made to be used as vases when emptied.
Pictorial Portrait Flasks: Historic flasks the display the bust portraits of noted people, political candidates.
Pictorial Portrait Flasks: Historic flasks the display the bust portraits of noted people, political candidates.
Pictures, Glass: General term for pictures on the reverse side of a pane of glass, either directly painted or indirectly applied..
Pictures, Glass: General term for pictures on the reverse side of a pane of glass, either directly painted or indirectly applied..
Pictures in Gold & Silver, on Glass: An old technique used by Italian glassmakers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The interior of the glass is coated with gold or silver and then etched or cut, at different depths, and colors are added.
Pictures in Gold & Silver, on Glass: An old technique used by Italian glassmakers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The interior of the glass is coated with gold or silver and then etched or cut, at different depths, and colors are added.
Pikes Peak Flask: Blown mold flasks that memorialize Pikes Peak. Over thirty forms are known.
Pikes Peak Flask: Blown mold flasks that memorialize Pikes Peak. Over thirty forms are known.
Pillar: Pressed glass pattern of large thumbprints.
Pillar: Pressed glass pattern of large thumbprints.
Pillar Molded: The technique of reapplying hot glass over a slightly cooled parison of glass and forcing the layers together in a mold to create the pillars on the hot outer glass. Blowing the glass then leaves the inside smooth and leaves the pillar design on the outside. The technique was used as early as 100 A.D..
Pillar Molded: The technique of reapplying hot glass over a slightly cooled parison of glass and forcing the layers together in a mold to create the pillars on the hot outer glass. Blowing the glass then leaves the inside smooth and leaves the pillar design on the outside. The technique was used as early as 100 A.D..
Pinchbeck Weight: A zinc-copper ally disk, simulating gold or silver having a bas-relief design. A magnifying is fitted on a alabaster or pewter base. It is not a real paperweight since the design is not fully encased in glass.
Pinchbeck Weight: A zinc-copper ally disk, simulating gold or silver having a bas-relief design. A magnifying is fitted on a alabaster or pewter base. It is not a real paperweight since the design is not fully encased in glass.
Pinched trailing: Similar pattern to nipt diamond. A wavy pattern of applying bands, lines or threads and pinchering them together to create a wavy decoration.
Pinched trailing: Similar pattern to nipt diamond. A wavy pattern of applying bands, lines or threads and pinchering them together to create a wavy decoration.
Pinchering: The shaping of soft glass with pincers.
Pinchering: The shaping of soft glass with pincers.
Pineapple: Pressed glass pattern of pineapple shapes outlined with diamond point and grooves, alternating with stylized three petaled tulip shapes.
Pineapple: Pressed glass pattern of pineapple shapes outlined with diamond point and grooves, alternating with stylized three petaled tulip shapes.
Pioneer Flint Glass Co.: Coffeyville, Kansas planted started in 1903 and became the Premium Glass Co. in 1905. It later moved to Sapulpa, Oklahoma in 1910. The company divided into the Barlett Collens Glass Co. and Leberty Glass Co., in 1918. Productions included: Jelly glasses Globes Novelties Oil lamps Pressed glass
Pioneer Flint Glass Co.: Coffeyville, Kansas planted started in 1903 and became the Premium Glass Co. in 1905. It later moved to Sapulpa, Oklahoma in 1910. The company divided into the Barlett Collens Glass Co. and Leberty Glass Co., in 1918. Productions included: Jelly glasses Globes Novelties Oil lamps Pressed glass
Pipe: The particularly designed steel or stainless steel tube to blow hot glass.
Pipe: The particularly designed steel or stainless steel tube to blow hot glass.
Pipe Cooler: The device used to cool, with runniing water, hot pipes or punties when they are to hot to hold.
Pipe Cooler: The device used to cool, with runniing water, hot pipes or punties when they are to hot to hold.
Pipe Warmer: The heated open chamber where pipes and punties are preheated.
Pipe Warmer: The heated open chamber where pipes and punties are preheated.
Pitkin Glass: Glass produced at the East Manchester, Conn., plant in 1783 by William & Elisha Pikin. Production of olive, light green and amber ware included: bowls demijohns flasks inkwells snuff jars swirl ribbed bottles vials
Pitkin Glass: Glass produced at the East Manchester, Conn., plant in 1783 by William & Elisha Pikin. Production of olive, light green and amber ware included: bowls demijohns flasks inkwells snuff jars swirl ribbed bottles vials
Pittsburgh Glass: Glass made at one of the many Pittsburgh glass factories.
Pittsburgh Glass: Glass made at one of the many Pittsburgh glass factories.
Pittsburgh Steamboat: A pressed cup plate, made in 1836, displaying a side wheel steamboat and the marking " UNION GLASS WORKS, PITTSBURGH."
Pittsburgh Steamboat: A pressed cup plate, made in 1836, displaying a side wheel steamboat and the marking " UNION GLASS WORKS, PITTSBURGH."
Plate Lettered: Technique that used a bottle mold with slotted side to hold different plates for plate letter molding.
Plate Lettered: Technique that used a bottle mold with slotted side to hold different plates for plate letter molding.
Plate Glass: Float window glass that is more than 3/16 inch thick.
Plate Glass: Float window glass that is more than 3/16 inch thick.
Plate Quality: Glass that is uniform and optically true.
Plate Quality: Glass that is uniform and optically true.
Plating: Descriptive of the process of casing, it is a 19th century term, used especially in America.
Plating: Descriptive of the process of casing, it is a 19th century term, used especially in America.
Pleat & Panel: Late issue pressed glass pattern.
Pleat & Panel: Late issue pressed glass pattern.
Plique-a-jour: An enameling technique like cloisonnþ but without the metal base, akin to a miniature stained glass window.
Plique-a-jour: An enameling technique like cloisonnþ but without the metal base, akin to a miniature stained glass window.
Plymouth Cut: Cut glass pattern from the 1870s to the 1880s.
Plymouth Cut: Cut glass pattern from the 1870s to the 1880s.
Plymouth Rock Paper Weight: Glass molded in the form of Plymouth Rock, made in 1876, but dated 1620 with an inscription memorialized Mary Chilton, who first set foot on it. The paperweights were made by the Providence Inkstand Company as souvenirs.
Plymouth Rock Paper Weight: Glass molded in the form of Plymouth Rock, made in 1876, but dated 1620 with an inscription memorialized Mary Chilton, who first set foot on it. The paperweights were made by the Providence Inkstand Company as souvenirs.
Point: A glass tube section that has been pulled to a taper on either end to serve as handles for working the section. Good for handling large diameter tubing.
Point: A glass tube section that has been pulled to a taper on either end to serve as handles for working the section. Good for handling large diameter tubing.
Poisons: Deep green or deep blue glass bottles, made in the 1860's, with sharp diamond pointing and sharp diamond pointed stoppers, and having "POISON" deeply impressed on top and sides.
Poisons: Deep green or deep blue glass bottles, made in the 1860's, with sharp diamond pointing and sharp diamond pointed stoppers, and having "POISON" deeply impressed on top and sides.
Pokal: European term for a covered goblet.
Pokal: European term for a covered goblet.
Poland Water Bottle: Blown molded bottle in the shape of a bearded man referred to as either Father Christmas or Father Time. Two vertical panels on the front are marked "Poland Water," and "H. Ricker & Sons Proprietors." The back of the bottle has the Poland Water Co. seal.
Poland Water Bottle: Blown molded bottle in the shape of a bearded man referred to as either Father Christmas or Father Time. Two vertical panels on the front are marked "Poland Water," and "H. Ricker & Sons Proprietors." The back of the bottle has the Poland Water Co. seal.
Polariscope: A device for measuring strains in glass by showing the stress patterns..
Polariscope: A device for measuring strains in glass by showing the stress patterns..
Pole Turner: The assistant who turns the pipe.
Pole Turner: The assistant who turns the pipe.
Policeman: A short section of rubber tubing that can be pinched or sealed shut, used to seal off the end of a tube temporarily.
Policeman: A short section of rubber tubing that can be pinched or sealed shut, used to seal off the end of a tube temporarily.
Polychrome: Having more one color.
Polychrome: Having more one color.
Polishing: Similar to grinding but the polishing material is fine rouges applied with revolving buffs The action removes little glass and depends on flow.
Polishing: Similar to grinding but the polishing material is fine rouges applied with revolving buffs The action removes little glass and depends on flow.
Political Glass: Glass that bears the likeness of political candidates or their symbols.
Political Glass: Glass that bears the likeness of political candidates or their symbols.
Polka Dot: A bi-colored pressed glass that simulates overlay cut glass. The surface is characterized by numerous glass dots on a colored background.
Polka Dot: A bi-colored pressed glass that simulates overlay cut glass. The surface is characterized by numerous glass dots on a colored background.
Pomona glass: Glass made 1885 by the New England Glass Company or Joseph Locke. Partially colored coated glass having a pebbled characteristic that is etched, and sometimes having decorated patterns.
Pomona glass: Glass made 1885 by the New England Glass Company or Joseph Locke. Partially colored coated glass having a pebbled characteristic that is etched, and sometimes having decorated patterns.
Potash-Lime Glass: A glass that uses potassium compounds for flux and lime for the stabilizer.
Potash-Lime Glass: A glass that uses potassium compounds for flux and lime for the stabilizer.
Potentiometric: See pyrometer.
Potentiometric: See pyrometer.
Pontil; Punt; Punty: The pontil takes the expanded glass from the blowing iron so the top can be finished. The metal rods or tubes used to hold, inflate and work a glass object during its hot manufacture. Additionally, it can gather added glass from the furnace as needed. A blow pipe can be used as a pontil during finishing.
Pontil; Punt; Punty: The pontil takes the expanded glass from the blowing iron so the top can be finished. The metal rods or tubes used to hold, inflate and work a glass object during its hot manufacture. Additionally, it can gather added glass from the furnace as needed. A blow pipe can be used as a pontil during finishing.
Pontil mark: Or pontil scar. The usually small, round or a ring-shaped scar on a glass vessel, usually centered on the base where the pontil was attached. The rough mark was once the sign of handmade glass until the 19th century when it was ground flat.
Pontil mark: Or pontil scar. The usually small, round or a ring-shaped scar on a glass vessel, usually centered on the base where the pontil was attached. The rough mark was once the sign of handmade glass until the 19th century when it was ground flat.
Pontil Marked Pressed Glass: Early pressed glass that bears the mark of a pontil used to remove the glass from a mold.
Pontil Marked Pressed Glass: Early pressed glass that bears the mark of a pontil used to remove the glass from a mold.
Pontil rod: See pontil.
Pontil rod: See pontil.
Poodle Bottle: A blown molded bottle that has the form of a French poodle that sits upright with a unmarked barrelhead between its paws to paste labels on. The mark "Design Patent 89968" appears on the bottom of some.
Poodle Bottle: A blown molded bottle that has the form of a French poodle that sits upright with a unmarked barrelhead between its paws to paste labels on. The mark "Design Patent 89968" appears on the bottom of some.
POOP: A mnemonic for: Propane-Oxygen Oxygen-Propane. The safe order for turning on a torch: propane then oxygen; and turning it off: oxygen then propane. The same order can be used on other gases such as natural gas, or hydrogen.
POOP: A mnemonic for: Propane-Oxygen Oxygen-Propane. The safe order for turning on a torch: propane then oxygen; and turning it off: oxygen then propane. The same order can be used on other gases such as natural gas, or hydrogen.
Port Elizabeth Glass: Glass made at the Port Elizabeth, N.J. factory started Stangers and others from c. 1810 to 1814. The business split up and part of it moved to Marshallville, N.J..
Port Elizabeth Glass: Glass made at the Port Elizabeth, N.J. factory started Stangers and others from c. 1810 to 1814. The business split up and part of it moved to Marshallville, N.J..
Portland Glass: A variety of pressed glass that was made at Portland, Me., from 1864 to 1870s.
Portland Glass: A variety of pressed glass that was made at Portland, Me., from 1864 to 1870s.
Pot: Open, closed, smaller skittles for small batch colored glass. A crucible of fire clay that a batch of glass in made in. Pots last from 3 to 6 weeks.
Pot: Open, closed, smaller skittles for small batch colored glass. A crucible of fire clay that a batch of glass in made in. Pots last from 3 to 6 weeks.
Pot Arch: Furnace used to fire pots initially.
Pot Arch: Furnace used to fire pots initially.
Pot Furnace: A furnace that holds pots that are used for melting glass.
Pot Furnace: A furnace that holds pots that are used for melting glass.
Pot Ring: A fire clay ring that float on the surface of an open pot. The ring keeps the glass within relatively still and the glass is gathered within the ring. Pot Settling: The transference of the pot from the pot arch to the melting furnace.
Pot Ring: A fire clay ring that float on the surface of an open pot. The ring keeps the glass within relatively still and the glass is gathered within the ring. Pot Settling: The transference of the pot from the pot arch to the melting furnace.
Potash Glass: Traditionally burning beechwood or wine residue produced the flux. Potash glass is an ingredient for lead glass, and is harder than soda glass suitable for engraving and cutting on wheels. Waldglass are forms of German and Bohemian potash glass.
Potash Glass: Traditionally burning beechwood or wine residue produced the flux. Potash glass is an ingredient for lead glass, and is harder than soda glass suitable for engraving and cutting on wheels. Waldglass are forms of German and Bohemian potash glass.
Potash-lime glass: Glass fluxed with potassium compounds and stabilized with lime.
Potash-lime glass: Glass fluxed with potassium compounds and stabilized with lime.
Pot furnace: A furnace that uses refractory containers, or pots, to melt the glass in.
Pot furnace: A furnace that uses refractory containers, or pots, to melt the glass in.
Pot Ring: Fire clay rings that float on glass in an open pot. Inside of the ring, the glass is relatively still and is where the glass is gathered to be free as possible from bubbles and impurities.
Pot Ring: Fire clay rings that float on glass in an open pot. Inside of the ring, the glass is relatively still and is where the glass is gathered to be free as possible from bubbles and impurities.
Pot settling: Transference of the pot from the arch to the melting furnace.
Pot settling: Transference of the pot from the arch to the melting furnace.
Potichimanie Vases: Potiche, jar of porcelain; manie, vogue. A fad of the mid nineteenth century that imitated Chinese porcelain by lining glass vases with pictures and coating them with plaster of Paris or other material.
Potichimanie Vases: Potiche, jar of porcelain; manie, vogue. A fad of the mid nineteenth century that imitated Chinese porcelain by lining glass vases with pictures and coating them with plaster of Paris or other material.
Powder: Color glass that has been powdered and is dusted or rolled onto hot glass.
-Q-
Quartz Inversion: The reversible physical changes that occurs in quartz crystals when they becomes heated to a temperature of 1050 degrees F.
Quatrefoil: A millefiori cane with a central four lobed design. The faceting design of exterior adornment of certain paperweights Garland pattern
Quatrefoil: A millefiori cane with a central four lobed design. The faceting design of exterior adornment of certain paperweights Garland pattern
Quench: To rapidly chill a hot object in water. Used to chill or crack a surface. A practice used to crack off glass from pipes and punties.
Quench: To rapidly chill a hot object in water. Used to chill or crack a surface. A practice used to crack off glass from pipes and punties.
Quilling: Also known as pinched trailing. Rigaree applications on glass with a wave link form.
-R-
Radiant heat: Heat emitted by a glowing hot element.
Railroad: A pressed glass pattern depicting railroad scenes or railraod trains.
Railroad: A pressed glass pattern depicting railroad scenes or railraod trains.
Railroad Flasks: Whiskey flasks that depict either a horse drawn car or a steam locomotive and usually bear the legend "Sucess to the Railroad."
Railroad Flasks: Whiskey flasks that depict either a horse drawn car or a steam locomotive and usually bear the legend "Sucess to the Railroad."
Railroad Plate: A oblong pressed glass plate with circular incurvate corners and depicting a locomotive and train.
Railroad Plate: A oblong pressed glass plate with circular incurvate corners and depicting a locomotive and train.
Raindrop: A pressed glass pattern of small pear like drops and no diamond points or lozenges.
Raindrop: A pressed glass pattern of small pear like drops and no diamond points or lozenges.
Rapid Cool: The stage of cooling from highest temperature to optimum annealing temperature.
Rapid Cool: The stage of cooling from highest temperature to optimum annealing temperature.
Rapid Heat: The stage of fusing when unfused glass is heated from the strain point to the fused level.
Rapid Heat: The stage of fusing when unfused glass is heated from the strain point to the fused level.
Random Spacing Scheme: With reference to paperweights, it is the assortment of upright, tightly packed canes, in the all-over design.
Random Spacing Scheme: With reference to paperweights, it is the assortment of upright, tightly packed canes, in the all-over design.
Ravenna glass Company: The glass factory started in the late 1850s at Ravenna, Ohio and produced until the 1880s. Production included: bottles flasks off hand work
Ravenna glass Company: The glass factory started in the late 1850s at Ravenna, Ohio and produced until the 1880s. Production included: bottles flasks off hand work
Ravenscroft Glass: George Ravenscroft made flint glass and used lead glass to produce a fine crystal glass. Ravenscroft was know as a master of "wrythen" and "nipp'd diamond waies" methods of tooled decoration. Ravenscroft had a factory at Henley on Thames, England; and marked some of his fine wares with a raven's head pressed into a prunt of glass.
Ravenscroft Glass: George Ravenscroft made flint glass and used lead glass to produce a fine crystal glass. Ravenscroft was know as a master of "wrythen" and "nipp'd diamond waies" methods of tooled decoration. Ravenscroft had a factory at Henley on Thames, England; and marked some of his fine wares with a raven's head pressed into a prunt of glass.
Reaper Tray: A 1890s pressed glass tray. Its center panel depicts a reaping machine drawn by a horse inside a border of crossties and rails.
Reaper Tray: A 1890s pressed glass tray. Its center panel depicts a reaping machine drawn by a horse inside a border of crossties and rails.
Rebound: Heat returning to a kiln from the brick, insulation and shelf after the rapid cool stage.
Rebound: Heat returning to a kiln from the brick, insulation and shelf after the rapid cool stage.
Redford Glass: Glass made from the 1830s to the 1850s at Redford, N.Y.. Production included: crown glass off hand work
Redford Glass: Glass made from the 1830s to the 1850s at Redford, N.Y.. Production included: crown glass off hand work
Reducing: Low in ozygen. Reducing flames can draw oxygen out of hot glass and discolor the surface.
Reducing: Low in ozygen. Reducing flames can draw oxygen out of hot glass and discolor the surface.
Reducing Atmosphere: The oxygen deficient atmosphere of a smokey kiln or furnace. Used to reduce oxides into metallic states such as with lustre pigments.
Reducing Atmosphere: The oxygen deficient atmosphere of a smokey kiln or furnace. Used to reduce oxides into metallic states such as with lustre pigments.
Reduction Lathe: A lathe used in sulphide manufacture that cuts a smaller reproduction of original bronzed images into steel.
Reduction Lathe: A lathe used in sulphide manufacture that cuts a smaller reproduction of original bronzed images into steel.
Reduction Lens: A lens used in sulphide manufacture to inspect the surface smoothness of a cameo.
Reduction Lens: A lens used in sulphide manufacture to inspect the surface smoothness of a cameo.
Refractories: Clays and substances that can resist high temperatures and deformation, composed of alumina, silica, and zirconia.
Refractories: Clays and substances that can resist high temperatures and deformation, composed of alumina, silica, and zirconia.
Refractory Pot: A pot made of fire proof (refractory) clays, for melting glass ingredients in. Pots typically have a life of tow or three months.
Refractory Pot: A pot made of fire proof (refractory) clays, for melting glass ingredients in. Pots typically have a life of tow or three months.
Regulator: The apparatus for adjust and reducing pressures of gas and oxygen to safe and usable levels.
Regulator: The apparatus for adjust and reducing pressures of gas and oxygen to safe and usable levels.
Reheat: To put glass into a furnace or glory hole to add heat and regain fluidity to blow or work the glass.
Reheat: To put glass into a furnace or glory hole to add heat and regain fluidity to blow or work the glass.
Relief: Figures and forms projecting off of a background.
Relief: Figures and forms projecting off of a background.
Renaissance: A period originating in Italy in the 14th century and spread through Europe to the 16th century. It was characterized by a revival of intellectural and artistic achievements.
Renaissance: A period originating in Italy in the 14th century and spread through Europe to the 16th century. It was characterized by a revival of intellectural and artistic achievements.
Resist Tape: An adhesive tape for used to stencil glass for sand blasting and other processes.
Resist Tape: An adhesive tape for used to stencil glass for sand blasting and other processes.
Reticllo: Vetro a reticell. See filigrana.
Reticllo: Vetro a reticell. See filigrana.
Reticulated: A Venetian technique from the 16th to 18th centuries, glass is knitted or looped, into an open network or "knitting."
Reticulated: A Venetian technique from the 16th to 18th centuries, glass is knitted or looped, into an open network or "knitting."
Retorti: Vetro a reticell. See filigrana.
Retorti: Vetro a reticell. See filigrana.
Rib mold: Vertical ribbing of a patterned mold.
Rib mold: Vertical ribbing of a patterned mold.
Ribbed, Ribbing: Upright and convex markings impressed on a parison of glass, by a mold, which are wider than the spaces between the markings.
Ribbed, Ribbing: Upright and convex markings impressed on a parison of glass, by a mold, which are wider than the spaces between the markings.
Ribbed Grape: A pressed glass pattern depicting fine vertical ribs and horizontally arranged, on top of, grapevines having stem, leaf, and clusters.
Ribbed Grape: A pressed glass pattern depicting fine vertical ribs and horizontally arranged, on top of, grapevines having stem, leaf, and clusters.
Ribbed Palm: Also called Spring. A pattern of verticle ribbing onto which a large palmate leaf is impressed.
Ribbed Palm: Also called Spring. A pattern of verticle ribbing onto which a large palmate leaf is impressed.
Ribbon: A pressed glass classification. A cane with a flat ribbon like component that can be twisted; used in chequer weights, crown weights and torsades.
Ribbon: A pressed glass classification. A cane with a flat ribbon like component that can be twisted; used in chequer weights, crown weights and torsades.
Ribbon Burner: A torch with an lengthened burner for heating long areas of glass.
Ribbon Burner: A torch with an lengthened burner for heating long areas of glass.
Ribbon Glass: Glass strips of different colors and dkinds are fused to produces vessels.
Ribbon Glass: Glass strips of different colors and dkinds are fused to produces vessels.
Ricardi Cut Glass: Passquale Ricardi was a noted New York glass cutter during the early 1800s.
Ricardi Cut Glass: Passquale Ricardi was a noted New York glass cutter during the early 1800s.
Rice & Johnson Glass: Glass made during the 1840s at Harrisburg, N.Y.. Production included: bottles tableware vials
Rice & Johnson Glass: Glass made during the 1840s at Harrisburg, N.Y.. Production included: bottles tableware vials
Rigaree: Trailing ribbons of glass, press into parallel notches, appearing as a ruffled color.
Rigaree: Trailing ribbons of glass, press into parallel notches, appearing as a ruffled color.
Ring: The circle or row of millefiori canes in concentric paperweights.
Ring: The circle or row of millefiori canes in concentric paperweights.
Ringed Jars: Confectioner's jars produced from the 1750s. The jars are stright sided cylinders with belled covers and decorated rings of often colored glass on the outside of the jars.
Ringed Jars: Confectioner's jars produced from the 1750s. The jars are stright sided cylinders with belled covers and decorated rings of often colored glass on the outside of the jars.
Ringed Knop: A decorative knop applied around the bulb ofnthe stem or between bulbs on the stem of a glass.
Ringed Knop: A decorative knop applied around the bulb ofnthe stem or between bulbs on the stem of a glass.
Ripple: A pressed glass pattern of ripples, like that formed on a pool of water.
Ripple: A pressed glass pattern of ripples, like that formed on a pool of water.
Ritchie & Wheat: Glassmakers from Wheeling, Va..
Ritchie & Wheat: Glassmakers from Wheeling, Va..
Robinson, George: George Robisnon had a glass firm at Wheeling, West Va., during the 1860s. Production included: black glass bottles druggist wares enameled wares plain wares
Robinson, George: George Robisnon had a glass firm at Wheeling, West Va., during the 1860s. Production included: black glass bottles druggist wares enameled wares plain wares
Robinson, T. & J.: See Stourbridge Glass
Robinson, T. & J.: See Stourbridge Glass
Rochester Glass: The Rochester, Pa., works produced blown and pressed glass from 1872. The factory was as the Rochester Tumbler Works. Production included fancy or palind, blown goblets and tumblers for cutting.
Rochester Glass: The Rochester, Pa., works produced blown and pressed glass from 1872. The factory was as the Rochester Tumbler Works. Production included fancy or palind, blown goblets and tumblers for cutting.
Rock Crystal: Natural clear quartz, a natural glass. Reference to wares carved from clear quartz.
Rock Crystal: Natural clear quartz, a natural glass. Reference to wares carved from clear quartz.
Rock Ground: The ground coarse and granular ground of paperweights made with green glass, sand and mica flakes.
Rock Ground: The ground coarse and granular ground of paperweights made with green glass, sand and mica flakes.
Rod: A round stick of glass. A section of glass with a masaic pattern running its length.
Rod: A round stick of glass. A section of glass with a masaic pattern running its length.
Rod-forming: See core forming.
Rod-forming: See core forming.
Roemer: Dutch: roemen, to praise, dating from the fifteenth century. A reference to large, engraved and cut glasses or goblets.
Roemer: Dutch: roemen, to praise, dating from the fifteenth century. A reference to large, engraved and cut glasses or goblets.
Rolled glass: Sheet glass made between rollers, or a roller and a table.
Rolled glass: Sheet glass made between rollers, or a roller and a table.
Rollers: A apparatus with wheeled rollers to support and rotate glass tubes and rods while working.
Rollers: A apparatus with wheeled rollers to support and rotate glass tubes and rods while working.
Rolling Pin: A rolling pin made of glass.
Rolling Pin: A rolling pin made of glass.
Rolling Pin Bottles: A glass rolling pin with a neck and opening so that the pin could be filled with either hot or cold water.
Rolling Pin Bottles: A glass rolling pin with a neck and opening so that the pin could be filled with either hot or cold water.
Roman Glass: Roman glass at the time of Caesar's conquest came from Egypt. Under Tiberius rule, glass making was started outside of Rome. Constantine moved the captital to Constantinople and established glass factories.
Roman Glass: Roman glass at the time of Caesar's conquest came from Egypt. Under Tiberius rule, glass making was started outside of Rome. Constantine moved the captital to Constantinople and established glass factories.
Roman Rosette: A late pressed glass pattern.
Roman Rosette: A late pressed glass pattern.
Rooster Finials: A variation of the swan finial depicting a rooster, that serves as a finial, knob or handhold on a cover.
Rooster Finials: A variation of the swan finial depicting a rooster, that serves as a finial, knob or handhold on a cover.
Rommer: Aslo, rummer. A round-bowled, thick stemmed spirit or wine glass.
Rommer: Aslo, rummer. A round-bowled, thick stemmed spirit or wine glass.
Rondelle: A round of glass made by spinning and flattening an open bubble of glass.
Rondelle: A round of glass made by spinning and flattening an open bubble of glass.
Rose Glass: Also called New Bedford Rose Glass. Glass colored with gold oxide to mimic the variegated colors of a rose petal. Produced by the Mount Washington Glass Works, New Bedford, Mass., from the 1880s.
Rose Glass: Also called New Bedford Rose Glass. Glass colored with gold oxide to mimic the variegated colors of a rose petal. Produced by the Mount Washington Glass Works, New Bedford, Mass., from the 1880s.
Rose Paperweights: Usually credited to Ralph Barber from Millville, N.J., who arrived from England and worked at the Dorflinger plant at White Mills, Pa.. There it is thought he learned the technique from E. J. Larsen.
Rose Paperweights: Usually credited to Ralph Barber from Millville, N.J., who arrived from England and worked at the Dorflinger plant at White Mills, Pa.. There it is thought he learned the technique from E. J. Larsen.
Rose Pompadour: A dainty pink ground found in some Clichy paperweights and Sevres porcelain.
Rose Pompadour: A dainty pink ground found in some Clichy paperweights and Sevres porcelain.
Rosetta Bead: A cane made from drawn glass canes having an internal pattern of layered contruction.
Rosetta Bead: A cane made from drawn glass canes having an internal pattern of layered contruction.
Rosette: A primary design of close packed canes, in a round group, that symbolize a glower.
Rosette: A primary design of close packed canes, in a round group, that symbolize a glower.
Rosette & Palm: A pressed glass pattern of alternating palm shapes and rosettes.
Rosette & Palm: A pressed glass pattern of alternating palm shapes and rosettes.
Rouge: A polish for metals and glass made of ferric oxide, having a reddish color.
Rouge: A polish for metals and glass made of ferric oxide, having a reddish color.
Roughing: The preparation of a surface, making it course and irregular, for finishing and polishing or grinding..
Roughing: The preparation of a surface, making it course and irregular, for finishing and polishing or grinding..
Rhyton: (Greek) Drinking vessel with the forms of human and animal heads and rims for placement.
Rhyton: (Greek) Drinking vessel with the forms of human and animal heads and rims for placement.
Ribbon glass: Strips of different kinds and colors of glass fused to form a vessel. Also a Venetian type of glass embellished with lattimo stripes.
Ribbon glass: Strips of different kinds and colors of glass fused to form a vessel. Also a Venetian type of glass embellished with lattimo stripes.
Roemer: German Drinking glasses with flared or oval bowls over prunt decorated hollow stems joined to a foot made of a spiraled thread.
Roemer: German Drinking glasses with flared or oval bowls over prunt decorated hollow stems joined to a foot made of a spiraled thread.
Running Stitch: A form of lace work made of rows of connected arches of the same size and shape.
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Saddle Bottles: Bottles having a gourd shape and round bottoms that were racked on an angle, or on sanded shelves, and hung in slings on walls. Often such bottles were carried in netted slings on saddles.
Safety Glass: See laminated safety glass.
Safety Glass: See laminated safety glass.
Saint Louis Glass (Missouri): Glass works started in 1842 ( operated to the 1880s under different management), in Saint Louis by the Eads family. Production included: blown glass bottles flint glass hollow ware pressed glass vials
Saint Louis Glass (Missouri): Glass works started in 1842 ( operated to the 1880s under different management), in Saint Louis by the Eads family. Production included: blown glass bottles flint glass hollow ware pressed glass vials
Saint Louis Glass (France): Reference to glass made by Compagnie des Cristalleries de Saint Louis, or La Verrerie de Saint Louis, in the Vosgest Mountains. The company was started in 1767 as the Verrerie Royale de Saint Louis in the Munzthal forest of the Lorraine region
Saint Louis Glass (France): Reference to glass made by Compagnie des Cristalleries de Saint Louis, or La Verrerie de Saint Louis, in the Vosgest Mountains. The company was started in 1767 as the Verrerie Royale de Saint Louis in the Munzthal forest of the Lorraine region
Salem Glass (Mass): A glass factory that operated at Salem starting in the 1640s and either operated for two years or until the 1660s.
Salem Glass (Mass): A glass factory that operated at Salem starting in the 1640s and either operated for two years or until the 1660s.
Salem Glass (N.J.): The factory was started by Samuel Norcross and others in the 1850s and operated to the 1880s. Production included: bottles fruit jars vials
Salem Glass (N.J.): The factory was started by Samuel Norcross and others in the 1850s and operated to the 1880s. Production included: bottles fruit jars vials
Saliva: Undesired strings of air bubbles made from inadequate expulsion of air when assembling a picee.
Saliva: Undesired strings of air bubbles made from inadequate expulsion of air when assembling a picee.
Salt Caster: The Stiegel Works produced casting bottles c. 1770. The bottles were blown glass with a pierced top and a high standing foot that hid the filling hole and stopper.
Salt Caster: The Stiegel Works produced casting bottles c. 1770. The bottles were blown glass with a pierced top and a high standing foot that hid the filling hole and stopper.
Salt Mouth: Refers to the neck of a wide mouthed bottle used to pour its granular contents.
Salt Mouth: Refers to the neck of a wide mouthed bottle used to pour its granular contents.
Salts: Designation of a open container used for salt.
Salts: Designation of a open container used for salt.
Sagging: The bending of glass by its own weight when heated.
Sagging: The bending of glass by its own weight when heated.
Sanctuary Lamp: A short glared beaker that can be colored, used to burn votive candles in Roman, or some Greek or Episcopal churches.
Sanctuary Lamp: A short glared beaker that can be colored, used to burn votive candles in Roman, or some Greek or Episcopal churches.
Sand Blasted Glass: Techniques first used by B. F. Tilghman of Philadelphia, in the 1860s, using compressed air to erode a surface with abrasive materials like aluminum oxide and silicon carbide. This creates a matte surface.
Sand Blasted Glass: Techniques first used by B. F. Tilghman of Philadelphia, in the 1860s, using compressed air to erode a surface with abrasive materials like aluminum oxide and silicon carbide. This creates a matte surface.
Sand Ground: See rock ground.
Sand Ground: See rock ground.
Sanders: Shakers for sand made with a solid, pierced top that allow the passage of the sand.
Sanders: Shakers for sand made with a solid, pierced top that allow the passage of the sand.
Sandever: See Gall.
Sandever: See Gall.
Sandwich: Techniques that layer a decorative material between two layers of glass.
Sandwich: Techniques that layer a decorative material between two layers of glass.
Sandwich Glass: Made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company in Sandwich, Mass., from 1825 to 1888. Founded as Sandwich Manufacturing Company, by Deming Jarves when he left Cambridge Glass. In 1826 it became the Boston & Sandwich Glass Company. Sandwich glass is blown, molded, cut, and engraved. A special mold, the first such equipment made in the United States, was used for its pressed glass. Tableware, lamps, vases, and scent bottles were some items made of sandwich glass. The glass is comparable to Baccarat pressed glass.
Sandwich Glass: Made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company in Sandwich, Mass., from 1825 to 1888. Founded as Sandwich Manufacturing Company, by Deming Jarves when he left Cambridge Glass. In 1826 it became the Boston & Sandwich Glass Company. Sandwich glass is blown, molded, cut, and engraved. A special mold, the first such equipment made in the United States, was used for its pressed glass. Tableware, lamps, vases, and scent bottles were some items made of sandwich glass. The glass is comparable to Baccarat pressed glass.
Sandwich Star: A pressed glass pattern of four petals imposed onto a diamond creating an eight pointed star,
Sandwich Star: A pressed glass pattern of four petals imposed onto a diamond creating an eight pointed star,
San Francisco Glass: Glass made at the factory started in the 1860s at San Francisco, Calif.. Production included: bottles carboys vials possibly Bear Bottle fire extinguishers
San Francisco Glass: Glass made at the factory started in the 1860s at San Francisco, Calif.. Production included: bottles carboys vials possibly Bear Bottle fire extinguishers
San Francisco Glass Works: The factory was established by the firm of Hostetter, Smith & Dean during the 1860s.
San Francisco Glass Works: The factory was established by the firm of Hostetter, Smith & Dean during the 1860s.
Santa Claus Bottle: Blown molded bottles depicting Santa Claus, c. 1900,
Santa Claus Bottle: Blown molded bottles depicting Santa Claus, c. 1900,
Saratoga Glass: See Granger Glass.
Saratoga Glass: See Granger Glass.
Satin Glass: Hobbs, Brockunier and Company of Wheeling, W. Va., was the main producer of satin glass (Similar glass was made in England and during the same period). A dull matte finish made by submerging the vessel in a corrosive acid or in the fumes of acid. The process was synonymous with "frosting" of fancy art made in the United States during the last half of the 19th century.
Satin Glass: Hobbs, Brockunier and Company of Wheeling, W. Va., was the main producer of satin glass (Similar glass was made in England and during the same period). A dull matte finish made by submerging the vessel in a corrosive acid or in the fumes of acid. The process was synonymous with "frosting" of fancy art made in the United States during the last half of the 19th century.
Saucers: Glass dishes for serving and using sauces. The dish used under a refreshment cup or syllabub bowl.
Saucers: Glass dishes for serving and using sauces. The dish used under a refreshment cup or syllabub bowl.
Saws: The use of mechanized diamond blades to saw and shape glass.
Saws: The use of mechanized diamond blades to saw and shape glass.
Sawtooth: A pressed glass pattern of a large diamond filling up to three quarters of a surface.
Sawtooth: A pressed glass pattern of a large diamond filling up to three quarters of a surface.
Saxon: A pressed glass patter of a sun ray fluting with blocked and starred rims.
Saxon: A pressed glass patter of a sun ray fluting with blocked and starred rims.
Scattered Millefiori: An irregularly spaced concentric millefiori design.
Scattered Millefiori: An irregularly spaced concentric millefiori design.
Schaper, Johannes: A glass enameler of Nuremberg, c. 1640.
Schaper, Johannes: A glass enameler of Nuremberg, c. 1640.
Schlernitzauer, Nicholas: A glass worker of the Oneida County (N.Y.) Glassworks. Noted for his production of whimsies, bottles enclosing forms of birds.
Schlernitzauer, Nicholas: A glass worker of the Oneida County (N.Y.) Glassworks. Noted for his production of whimsies, bottles enclosing forms of birds.
Schmelzglas (German): An opagque marbled glass that imitates stones such as agate,chalecedony and others.
Schmelzglas (German): An opagque marbled glass that imitates stones such as agate,chalecedony and others.
Schnappsflaschen: Swiss A bladder like blown glass with pinched in sides and a "stuck on" neck that is attached after the blowing operation. Found in ribbed, swirled and dotted glass of usually dark green color.
Schnappsflaschen: Swiss A bladder like blown glass with pinched in sides and a "stuck on" neck that is attached after the blowing operation. Found in ribbed, swirled and dotted glass of usually dark green color.
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe: A noted overseer in the nineteenth century at the Vernon and Geneva Glass Works of New York State.
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe: A noted overseer in the nineteenth century at the Vernon and Geneva Glass Works of New York State.
Schwartzlot: German A sepia enamel in the form of stained glass painting. Opaque marbled glass that looks like stones such as agate, chalcedony, etc.. Sepia enamel forms from stained glass paintings, used to decorated vessel, sometimes combined with gold. Points are used to scratch in details.
Schwartzlot: German A sepia enamel in the form of stained glass painting. Opaque marbled glass that looks like stones such as agate, chalcedony, etc.. Sepia enamel forms from stained glass paintings, used to decorated vessel, sometimes combined with gold. Points are used to scratch in details.
Schuylkill Glass Works: The glass works was started in 1873 by Robert Morres and John Nicholson at Schuylkill, near Philadelphia; it operated until 1808. In 1810 it reopened as Skhuylkill Glass Works. In 1823 as the Philadelphia Glass Works. Production included: bottles flint glass green glass tablerwares window glass
Schuylkill Glass Works: The glass works was started in 1873 by Robert Morres and John Nicholson at Schuylkill, near Philadelphia; it operated until 1808. In 1810 it reopened as Skhuylkill Glass Works. In 1823 as the Philadelphia Glass Works. Production included: bottles flint glass green glass tablerwares window glass
Scrambled: end of day, or pell-mell. The design of millefiori paperweights, having broken and whole canes, and sometimes colored or white lace, that are mixed up together and fill the weight.
Scrambled: end of day, or pell-mell. The design of millefiori paperweights, having broken and whole canes, and sometimes colored or white lace, that are mixed up together and fill the weight.
Scratch and Break: Technique of cutting glass tubing by scratching and pulling apart. The glass is scored with one stroke, the score moistened, facing it to ones body then bending outward and pulling to separate the pieces.
Scratch and Break: Technique of cutting glass tubing by scratching and pulling apart. The glass is scored with one stroke, the score moistened, facing it to ones body then bending outward and pulling to separate the pieces.
Scratch and Shock: Technique of cutting glass tubing by scratching and applying heat, often used on lathwork.
Scratch and Shock: Technique of cutting glass tubing by scratching and applying heat, often used on lathwork.
Sea Horse Bottles: Fragrance bottles having the form of a sea horse, and worked in the Venetian style of crimps and swirls. Found in clear glass or contrasting colors. The bottles were made at Bristol, Nailsea, and some at Sandwich.
Sea Horse Bottles: Fragrance bottles having the form of a sea horse, and worked in the Venetian style of crimps and swirls. Found in clear glass or contrasting colors. The bottles were made at Bristol, Nailsea, and some at Sandwich.
Sealed Glass: The impression , or seal, placed onto a prunt that usually signified a customer or vintner.
Sealed Glass: The impression , or seal, placed onto a prunt that usually signified a customer or vintner.
Seashell: Transparent pressed glass in the form of a seashell, either plain or engraved, and having finials or knobs..
Seashell: Transparent pressed glass in the form of a seashell, either plain or engraved, and having finials or knobs..
Seeds: Small bubbles that are imperfections in glass, often caused by impurities in the raw batch, or insufficient heat or time during the melting and refining process. Also impurities such as dusk or dirt.
Seeds: Small bubbles that are imperfections in glass, often caused by impurities in the raw batch, or insufficient heat or time during the melting and refining process. Also impurities such as dusk or dirt.
Selenium colors: A metallic element, appears black in powder form, as a colloidal color can strike when reheated. Used with cadmium sulfide creates colors from amber orange to bright red. Soda lime glass gives a lighter rose color.
Selenium colors: A metallic element, appears black in powder form, as a colloidal color can strike when reheated. Used with cadmium sulfide creates colors from amber orange to bright red. Soda lime glass gives a lighter rose color.
Separator: See shelf primer.
Separator: See shelf primer.
Sepia Enameling: See Schwartzlot.
Sepia Enameling: See Schwartzlot.
Serass: An early name for crystal, flint or lead glass.
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Table Facet: A flat round cut onto the top of a paperweight.
Table Setting: A reference to the collecting of pressed glass as a table place settings. A setting has a butter chip, butter plate, salt and pepper vessels, sauce dish, service plate, tea plate and more. Complete settings include: butter dishes, compotes, creamer, goblets, ice cream dishes, salad bowl, sugar bowl, tumblers, water pitcher, wineglasses and more.
Table Setting: A reference to the collecting of pressed glass as a table place settings. A setting has a butter chip, butter plate, salt and pepper vessels, sauce dish, service plate, tea plate and more. Complete settings include: butter dishes, compotes, creamer, goblets, ice cream dishes, salad bowl, sugar bowl, tumblers, water pitcher, wineglasses and more.
Tablet Bottles: Bottles with a screw on cap made to hold medicine tablets and pills. They were made in many sizes and shapes, with the largest manufacture of them from 1850 to 1900.
Tablet Bottles: Bottles with a screw on cap made to hold medicine tablets and pills. They were made in many sizes and shapes, with the largest manufacture of them from 1850 to 1900.
Taker-in: A gaffer's apprentice, particularly one who assists in taking the finished glass to the lehr.
Taker-in: A gaffer's apprentice, particularly one who assists in taking the finished glass to the lehr.
Tale: The first and last drawing of a parison of glass from the pot.
Tale: The first and last drawing of a parison of glass from the pot.
Tam O'Shanter Stopper: The stopper of a bottle having the form of Scottish cap with pompon.
Tam O'Shanter Stopper: The stopper of a bottle having the form of Scottish cap with pompon.
Tank: See furnace.
Tank: See furnace.
Tank Surface: Furnaces that hold melted glass without any pots.
Tank Surface: Furnaces that hold melted glass without any pots.
Taper Cologne: A stoppered or sprinkler top bottle with tapered side walls used in barbershops and on dressing tables.
Taper Cologne: A stoppered or sprinkler top bottle with tapered side walls used in barbershops and on dressing tables.
Target Balls: Glass balls, one and half to three inches wide, that were used as targets when thrown with a sling.
Target Balls: Glass balls, one and half to three inches wide, that were used as targets when thrown with a sling.
Tassie: Cameo glass made in the 1760s by James Tassie of London. Tassies were molded glass that was polished, made as replicas.
Tassie: Cameo glass made in the 1760s by James Tassie of London. Tassies were molded glass that was polished, made as replicas.
Tazza: Wafer dish. Tazze were dishes for cakes, fruit, etc. and the bases for tall epergnes of smaller tiers. Usually tazza are wide cups and serving plates, they may have handles, and they are mounted on stemmed feet.
Tazza: Wafer dish. Tazze were dishes for cakes, fruit, etc. and the bases for tall epergnes of smaller tiers. Usually tazza are wide cups and serving plates, they may have handles, and they are mounted on stemmed feet.
Tea Plates: Blown or pressed glass plates, six inches wide, made in many patterns.
Tea Plates: Blown or pressed glass plates, six inches wide, made in many patterns.
Tear: A bubble deliberately encased in blown glass as a decoration. Tears are frequently used in stems of objects.
Tear: A bubble deliberately encased in blown glass as a decoration. Tears are frequently used in stems of objects.
Teardrop: Decorative, tear dropped shaped bubbles of deliberately trapped air bubbles.
Teardrop: Decorative, tear dropped shaped bubbles of deliberately trapped air bubbles.
Tecumseh Mustard: A two inch square blockhouse shaped jar with a roof that is the lid and chimney being a handle. These jars probably were used for honey and jams and date c. 1880 to 1890.
Tecumseh Mustard: A two inch square blockhouse shaped jar with a roof that is the lid and chimney being a handle. These jars probably were used for honey and jams and date c. 1880 to 1890.
Tee Seal: See attachment seal. Also called "side arm" seal.
Tee Seal: See attachment seal. Also called "side arm" seal.
Temperanceville Glass (New Jersey): Production of the factory at Lewisville, N.J. in the 1830s, which operated until the 1880s. It was so named as solely teetotalers received jobs. Production included: bottles bowls flasks hollow wares
Temperanceville Glass (New Jersey): Production of the factory at Lewisville, N.J. in the 1830s, which operated until the 1880s. It was so named as solely teetotalers received jobs. Production included: bottles bowls flasks hollow wares
Temperature: The measure of heat intensity in degrees Fahrenheit or Centigrade.
Temperature: The measure of heat intensity in degrees Fahrenheit or Centigrade.
Tempering Glass: A glass treatment that produces internal stress by rapid cooling from a low red heat with a blast of air that hardens the surface first that compresses as the inner glass continues to shrink. This is a very durable glass, however it does not cut, as it will break into small pieces.
Tempering Glass: A glass treatment that produces internal stress by rapid cooling from a low red heat with a blast of air that hardens the surface first that compresses as the inner glass continues to shrink. This is a very durable glass, however it does not cut, as it will break into small pieces.
Template: Or disc. With reference to paperweight manufacture, it is a small cast iron disc in which a design is sorted before it is picked up.
Template: Or disc. With reference to paperweight manufacture, it is a small cast iron disc in which a design is sorted before it is picked up.
Temple Glass: Production by Hessian and other deserters of the British Army at temple, N.H., from 1780 to 1782.
Temple Glass: Production by Hessian and other deserters of the British Army at temple, N.H., from 1780 to 1782.
Tendril Stem: A stem that is entwine with a spiral thread, sometimes with contrasting color.
Tendril Stem: A stem that is entwine with a spiral thread, sometimes with contrasting color.
Teracotta: A reddish brown clay used for pottery and building.
Teracotta: A reddish brown clay used for pottery and building.
Tessera: Reference to squares or individual pieces of a mosaic. Also a reference to pieces of glass or other substances.
Tessera: Reference to squares or individual pieces of a mosaic. Also a reference to pieces of glass or other substances.
Theatrical Glass: Blown molded, cut, etched or pressed glass that commemorated theater, plays and players.
Theatrical Glass: Blown molded, cut, etched or pressed glass that commemorated theater, plays and players.
Thermal Coeeficient of Expansion (a alpha): The amount a material will expand (per degree) when heated, expressed exponentially. The smaller a is the more resistant a glass is to thermal shock. PyrexTM 7740, a = 32.5 X 10-Z. The closer the a of two glasses are the more compatible they are.
Thermal Coeeficient of Expansion (a alpha): The amount a material will expand (per degree) when heated, expressed exponentially. The smaller a is the more resistant a glass is to thermal shock. PyrexTM 7740, a = 32.5 X 10-Z. The closer the a of two glasses are the more compatible they are.
Thermal Endurance: The capacity of glass to undergo thermal shock.
Thermal Endurance: The capacity of glass to undergo thermal shock.
Thermal Shock: A reference to materials shock from heat. Too rapid of heating or cooling past the strain point temperature of glass causes thermal strains and cracking.
Thermal Shock: A reference to materials shock from heat. Too rapid of heating or cooling past the strain point temperature of glass causes thermal strains and cracking.
Thermocouple: A thermoelectric device of two dissimilar metals that form a electrical potential difference at their junction. The potential changes with temperature and is measurable.
Thermocouple: A thermoelectric device of two dissimilar metals that form a electrical potential difference at their junction. The potential changes with temperature and is measurable.
Thimble Hand: A nineteenth century pressed or tooled glass with the form of a hand with separated fingers to hold thimbles.
Thimble Hand: A nineteenth century pressed or tooled glass with the form of a hand with separated fingers to hold thimbles.
Thousand Eye: A pressed glass pattern of graduated circles with diamond points in between.
Thousand Eye: A pressed glass pattern of graduated circles with diamond points in between.
Thread: A decorative trail of hot glass applied as an object is rotated, usually as a spiral.
Thread: A decorative trail of hot glass applied as an object is rotated, usually as a spiral.
Threaded Glass: Glass decorated with small threads applied onto the original glass parison. Glass ware with the surface appearance of separation into small threads.
Threaded Glass: Glass decorated with small threads applied onto the original glass parison. Glass ware with the surface appearance of separation into small threads.
Threading: Reference to the application of heavy glass thread around bottle or decanter necks and other wares.
Threading: Reference to the application of heavy glass thread around bottle or decanter necks and other wares.
Three Face: A pressed glass pattern, also called the Three Graces, said to have begun with George Duncan & Sons of Pittsburgh in the 1870s or 1880s. The faces appeared on the stems of different wares.
Three Face: A pressed glass pattern, also called the Three Graces, said to have begun with George Duncan & Sons of Pittsburgh in the 1870s or 1880s. The faces appeared on the stems of different wares.
Three Mold Pressed Glass : A term for blown three molded glass. The molds were made of three of more hinged pieces which required an assistant to open and close the molds. Such glass usually show lines were the molds joined.
Three Mold Pressed Glass : A term for blown three molded glass. The molds were made of three of more hinged pieces which required an assistant to open and close the molds. Such glass usually show lines were the molds joined.
Three Panel: A pressed glass panel of three panels of pear like dots with alternate dots having a flower like impression. It has been found in amber, amethyst, blue, and yellow.
Three Panel: A pressed glass panel of three panels of pear like dots with alternate dots having a flower like impression. It has been found in amber, amethyst, blue, and yellow.
Thumb Pattern: Ashburton style pattern that have a shallow indentation that looks like a thumbprint.
Thumb Pattern: Ashburton style pattern that have a shallow indentation that looks like a thumbprint.
Thumb Squeeze and Turn: A technique to cut rods and tubes. The tube is held between the knife and thumb, rotating the tube while scoring it, then moistening the score and making the break.
Thumb Squeeze and Turn: A technique to cut rods and tubes. The tube is held between the knife and thumb, rotating the tube while scoring it, then moistening the score and making the break.
Thumbprint: A pressed glass pattern that mimicked the empire or Regency form of cutting. The surface of the glass is a series of ovoid facets approximating the size and shape of a thumbprint.
Thumbprint: A pressed glass pattern that mimicked the empire or Regency form of cutting. The surface of the glass is a series of ovoid facets approximating the size and shape of a thumbprint.
Thumbprint Cut: An oval, elongated concave window on a paperweight.
Thumbprint Cut: An oval, elongated concave window on a paperweight.
Tie-Over Jars: Jars that have a very indented rim to tie down a cover of parchment or paper for a seal. These were preserving jars before the 1850s.
Tie-Over Jars: Jars that have a very indented rim to tie down a cover of parchment or paper for a seal. These were preserving jars before the 1850s.
Tiffany favrile: Favrile, Latin for "craftsman" This "Art Nouveau" glass was made by Louis Comfort Tiffany from 1893 to 1933 on Long Island, N.Y. It is an iridescent and unconfined shaped glass, often with silky looking surfaces. Frequently it combined bronze like alloys and other metals to make a range of colors from deep blue to purple, and yellow-gold to green. The glass was very popular in the United States and Europe from 1890 to 1915, and revived in the 1960s.
Tiffany favrile: Favrile, Latin for "craftsman" This "Art Nouveau" glass was made by Louis Comfort Tiffany from 1893 to 1933 on Long Island, N.Y. It is an iridescent and unconfined shaped glass, often with silky looking surfaces. Frequently it combined bronze like alloys and other metals to make a range of colors from deep blue to purple, and yellow-gold to green. The glass was very popular in the United States and Europe from 1890 to 1915, and revived in the 1960s.
Tin oxide: SnO A polishing compound for glass that appears as a white powder.
Tin oxide: SnO A polishing compound for glass that appears as a white powder.
Tip: The apparature on the end of a torch.
Tip: The apparature on the end of a torch.
Toastmaster's Glass: A wine or spirit glass of small capacity, but normal appearance. These glasses date from the eighteenth century, and allowed the leader of a meal to drink toasts and stay fairly sober.
Toastmaster's Glass: A wine or spirit glass of small capacity, but normal appearance. These glasses date from the eighteenth century, and allowed the leader of a meal to drink toasts and stay fairly sober.
Toggle Balls: Also misnamed as milk bowl covers. Blown glass balls in sizes from four to twelve inches in diameter used as floats to mark and support nets of fishermen.
Toggle Balls: Also misnamed as milk bowl covers. Blown glass balls in sizes from four to twelve inches in diameter used as floats to mark and support nets of fishermen.
Tomato Flasks: The early name used for ketchup bottles produced from the 1850s.
Tomato Flasks: The early name used for ketchup bottles produced from the 1850s.
Tooled Glass: Blown wares that have been tooled for shape and decoration.
Tooled Glass: Blown wares that have been tooled for shape and decoration.
Tooling: Squeezing or pressing soft glass with tools, while rotated on a pontil or blow pipe.
Tooling: Squeezing or pressing soft glass with tools, while rotated on a pontil or blow pipe.
Top Loader: An annealer that is hinged on the top from where it's loaded.
Top Loader: An annealer that is hinged on the top from where it's loaded.
Torsade: A filigree ring of white with or with out colored thread, usually with complicated patterns and form low border to mushrooms or upright bouquets. With reference to paperweights, it is opaque glass thread wound loosely around the filigree core often found at the bse of a mushroom weight.
Torsade: A filigree ring of white with or with out colored thread, usually with complicated patterns and form low border to mushrooms or upright bouquets. With reference to paperweights, it is opaque glass thread wound loosely around the filigree core often found at the bse of a mushroom weight.
Torch: See bench torch.
Torch: See bench torch.
Toys: A large category of glass production with many divisions. Glass toys production fall into three categories: regular production offhand work after hours work-frigging
Toys: A large category of glass production with many divisions. Glass toys production fall into three categories: regular production offhand work after hours work-frigging
Trail, Trailing: The pulling of a strand of glass onto the surface of a glass object, to produce spirals, or other patterns. The trailed glass can be later shaped with tools.
Trail, Trailing: The pulling of a strand of glass onto the surface of a glass object, to produce spirals, or other patterns. The trailed glass can be later shaped with tools.
Transfer: To punty. To attach a piece of hot glass to another punty and removing it from the original punty or pipe.
Transfer: To punty. To attach a piece of hot glass to another punty and removing it from the original punty or pipe.
Transfers: See decal.
Transfers: See decal.
Translucent: The property of transmission of light that diffuses it.
Translucent: The property of transmission of light that diffuses it.
Transparent: Transmission of light, without diffusion, that allows and image to be undistorted.
Transparent: Transmission of light, without diffusion, that allows and image to be undistorted.
Trays: See dishes.
Trays: See dishes.
Trefoil: Garlands made of three loops.
Trefoil: Garlands made of three loops.
Trevor & Ensell: Pittsburgh glassmakers from 1812 to 1818, they known for their blown, flint glass wares.
Trevor & Ensell: Pittsburgh glassmakers from 1812 to 1818, they known for their blown, flint glass wares.
Tricolore: The originals were the three color of the French flag: red, white, and blue.. Later paperweights were made with flowers those colors. A popular item during the Revolution of 1848.
Tricolore: The originals were the three color of the French flag: red, white, and blue.. Later paperweights were made with flowers those colors. A popular item during the Revolution of 1848.
Triple Overlay: See overlay glass.
Triple Overlay: See overlay glass.
Trumpet Vases: Blown glass vases in sizes twelve to sixteen inches high in a shape like a trumpet on a baluster stem with welted foot, c. 1810, found in amethyst and blue glass. It is likely they are of Bristol origin rather than Stiegel as once thought.
Trumpet Vases: Blown glass vases in sizes twelve to sixteen inches high in a shape like a trumpet on a baluster stem with welted foot, c. 1810, found in amethyst and blue glass. It is likely they are of Bristol origin rather than Stiegel as once thought.
Tuft: See mushroom.
Tuft: See mushroom.
Tulip: A pressed glass pattern of a vertical row of tulips, every one with three rounded petals, the interstices done with diamond pointing. The bowls of covered dishes have a wavy edge made by the petals, which matches the shape of the cover.
Tulip: A pressed glass pattern of a vertical row of tulips, every one with three rounded petals, the interstices done with diamond pointing. The bowls of covered dishes have a wavy edge made by the petals, which matches the shape of the cover.
Tulip Vase: A vase in which the form of the bowl looks like that of a partially opened tulip.
Tulip Vase: A vase in which the form of the bowl looks like that of a partially opened tulip.
Tumbler: Traditionally any round bottomed glasses that had no base and thus did not stand up on their own. The term today applies to any drinking glass without a stem or foot that is straight walled. The container of the mechanism that mixes a batch.
Tumbler: Traditionally any round bottomed glasses that had no base and thus did not stand up on their own. The term today applies to any drinking glass without a stem or foot that is straight walled. The container of the mechanism that mixes a batch.
Tumbler Hat: A glass hat made after blowing a parison in a tumbler mold.
Tumbler Hat: A glass hat made after blowing a parison in a tumbler mold.
Tungsten carbide: WC It appears a fine gray powder used for rough grinding and as an abrasive in tool and dies, and wear resistant tool and machine parts.
Tungsten carbide: WC It appears a fine gray powder used for rough grinding and as an abrasive in tool and dies, and wear resistant tool and machine parts.
Turtle Doorstop: Turtles shaped from big gobs of glass. They were made at New England and Lancaster, N.Y. and date probably from the 1850s.
Turtle Doorstop: Turtles shaped from big gobs of glass. They were made at New England and Lancaster, N.Y. and date probably from the 1850s.
Turn Pole: See pole turner.
Turn Pole: See pole turner.
Tweezer: Also called pincers. A pointed tong like tool for holding or working hot glass.
Tweezer: Also called pincers. A pointed tong like tool for holding or working hot glass.
Twist: See torsade.
Twist: See torsade.
Twistie: The decoration of glass cane by twisting two or more colored pieces together.
Twistie: The decoration of glass cane by twisting two or more colored pieces together.
Two and three part glasses: The former are glasses with drawn stems, which are one with the bowl and the foot is added. The later, the stem and bowl are separately made and have a foot added. Three piece glasses can allow for more complicated patterns of the parts.
Two and three part glasses: The former are glasses with drawn stems, which are one with the bowl and the foot is added. The later, the stem and bowl are separately made and have a foot added. Three piece glasses can allow for more complicated patterns of the parts.
Two Panel: A pressed glass pattern of two panel pressed with starred squares alternating with two plain panels. Found in clear, transparent and colored glass.
-U-
Umpire Jar: Measuring jar of the Umpire Glass Works of Pittsburgh in the 1890s. Pressed marks for measuring are on the outside.
Underlay: A thin layer of colored glass on the interior of a glass piece.
Underlay: A thin layer of colored glass on the interior of a glass piece.
Union Bowl: A pressed glass bowl: twenty one inch high, twenty two inches in diameter and sixty pounds in weight. Produced by Deming Jarves in 1851 at the Sandwich, Mass. plant.
Union Bowl: A pressed glass bowl: twenty one inch high, twenty two inches in diameter and sixty pounds in weight. Produced by Deming Jarves in 1851 at the Sandwich, Mass. plant.
Union Flint Glass Company: Also known as: Kensington, Pa., Works. Started in the 1820s by men from the New England Glass company and operated untill the 1870s. Production included: colored glass cut glass fine clear glass plain glass specialties
Union Flint Glass Company: Also known as: Kensington, Pa., Works. Started in the 1820s by men from the New England Glass company and operated untill the 1870s. Production included: colored glass cut glass fine clear glass plain glass specialties
Union Glass: Production of the Union Flint Glass Works at Pittsburgh, Pa., started in 1830 and operated by Hay & Campbell from 1831 to the 1850s. Production included: cut glass blown flint ware decanters lamps plain tablewares pressed flint ware Two glass works at Wheeling, Va., used the name Union. Production included: bitters bottles green glass perfumers' wares vials. Union Glass Company at Somerville, Mass., made pressed glass and blanks for cutting.
Union Glass: Production of the Union Flint Glass Works at Pittsburgh, Pa., started in 1830 and operated by Hay & Campbell from 1831 to the 1850s. Production included: cut glass blown flint ware decanters lamps plain tablewares pressed flint ware Two glass works at Wheeling, Va., used the name Union. Production included: bitters bottles green glass perfumers' wares vials. Union Glass Company at Somerville, Mass., made pressed glass and blanks for cutting.
United States Glass Company: The plant was started at Falmouth, Mass and produced pressed glass. The plant was later known as Falmouth Glass Works.
United States Glass Company: The plant was started at Falmouth, Mass and produced pressed glass. The plant was later known as Falmouth Glass Works.
United States Platter: A tray, about eight by eleven inches, in the pressed shape of the American flag. The tray has a scrolled edge, stripes as alternating solid bars and starred bands. Dates from the later 1800s.
United States Platter: A tray, about eight by eleven inches, in the pressed shape of the American flag. The tray has a scrolled edge, stripes as alternating solid bars and starred bands. Dates from the later 1800s.
Upright Bouquet: A three dimensional collection of canes and ornate lampwork flowers on a bed of leaves.
Upright Bouquet: A three dimensional collection of canes and ornate lampwork flowers on a bed of leaves.
Upright Muslin: See filigree.
Upright Muslin: See filigree.
Utica: Also known as Honeycomb. Pressed glass pattern made by the Cape Cod Glass company.
Utica: Also known as Honeycomb. Pressed glass pattern made by the Cape Cod Glass company.
Upright Bouquet: A floral design that is vertically placed.
-V-
Val Saint Lambert Glass: Production of the factory started in 1825 at Val Saint Lambert, Belgium. It was noted for its beautiful crystal wares and press glass that have a dotted and lacy background, a great deal of it marked "Val St. Lambert, Belgique."
Valentine Cup Plates: A designation for cup or tea plates impressed with symbols of arrows and hearts.
Valentine Cup Plates: A designation for cup or tea plates impressed with symbols of arrows and hearts.
Vapor Pressure: The pressre of vapor over a liquid in a closed container.
Vapor Pressure: The pressre of vapor over a liquid in a closed container.
Vasa Murrhina: The name of a varicolored glass made by dusting a father or parison of glass with metals and metal oxides, then fusing it and finally coating it with another coat of glass.
Vasa Murrhina: The name of a varicolored glass made by dusting a father or parison of glass with metals and metal oxides, then fusing it and finally coating it with another coat of glass.
Vases: Glass vases constitute a large category of glass produced in numerous varieties..
Vases: Glass vases constitute a large category of glass produced in numerous varieties..
Vase Candle Lamp: A three part vase form candle lamps often tented or colored and with enamel or painted embellishment. They date from the 1850s to the 1890s.
Vase Candle Lamp: A three part vase form candle lamps often tented or colored and with enamel or painted embellishment. They date from the 1850s to the 1890s.
Vase Lamp: The lamp is a frosted cut globe over a sun chimney that sits on top of an oil reservoir which fits into a vase. The vase could be filled with flowers and the reservoir placed on it.
Vase Lamp: The lamp is a frosted cut globe over a sun chimney that sits on top of an oil reservoir which fits into a vase. The vase could be filled with flowers and the reservoir placed on it.
Vase Stoppers: Stoppers in the form of a small vase made for toilet water and perfume bottles.
Vase Stoppers: Stoppers in the form of a small vase made for toilet water and perfume bottles.
Vaupel, Louis: A glass cutter of the New England Glass Company, Cambridge, from 1856 to the 1870s.
Vaupel, Louis: A glass cutter of the New England Glass Company, Cambridge, from 1856 to the 1870s.
Vauxhall Glass: Plate glass with beveled edges made at Vauxhall Works, started by the Duke of Buckingham, England, c. 1660. Thee are stories that fine crystal vases and bottles were made at the works.
Vauxhall Glass: Plate glass with beveled edges made at Vauxhall Works, started by the Duke of Buckingham, England, c. 1660. Thee are stories that fine crystal vases and bottles were made at the works.
Venetian Glass: Reference to glass work and sytles done in the Venetian manner that originated in Murano, Italy. Venetian glass is masterfullly crafted or thinly blown.
Venetian Glass: Reference to glass work and sytles done in the Venetian manner that originated in Murano, Italy. Venetian glass is masterfullly crafted or thinly blown.
Venetian Glass Balls: A name for glass paperweights during the 1850s. They are scrambled paperweights of millefiori leftovers, rolled into a ball and covered with glass.
Venetian Glass Balls: A name for glass paperweights during the 1850s. They are scrambled paperweights of millefiori leftovers, rolled into a ball and covered with glass.
Venetian Brown & Gold: A type of glass used for toys and ornaments described in 1847 as "brown with gold spangles."
Venetian Brown & Gold: A type of glass used for toys and ornaments described in 1847 as "brown with gold spangles."
Vent: An outlet for air, smoke, and fumes not be confused with peep holes. Kiln vents allow organic fumes, from initial heating, and excess heat to escape.
Vent: An outlet for air, smoke, and fumes not be confused with peep holes. Kiln vents allow organic fumes, from initial heating, and excess heat to escape.
Ventilating Glass: A faddish window glass of the 1840s that had fine holes drilled at oblique angles for ventilation.
Ventilating Glass: A faddish window glass of the 1840s that had fine holes drilled at oblique angles for ventilation.
Vermicular Collar: The thin wavy like ring around a stem, glass, or bowl's bottom, or bottle neck. Sometimes they are used for a tall stem, providing a finger lip for grasping.
Vermicular Collar: The thin wavy like ring around a stem, glass, or bowl's bottom, or bottle neck. Sometimes they are used for a tall stem, providing a finger lip for grasping.
Vermiculee: A convoluted design, described as appear as worm tracks.
Vermiculee: A convoluted design, described as appear as worm tracks.
Vermiculite: Expanded mica. A light weight, insulating material, used to allow hot glass to cool slowly.
Vermiculite: Expanded mica. A light weight, insulating material, used to allow hot glass to cool slowly.
Vermont Glass: Window glass made at the Middlebury and Salisbury from 1813. It is said that bottles were made until 1817.
Vermont Glass: Window glass made at the Middlebury and Salisbury from 1813. It is said that bottles were made until 1817.
Verre de Nevers: French Term for small lampwork figures of opaque colors in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from Nevers and other places.
Verre de Nevers: French Term for small lampwork figures of opaque colors in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from Nevers and other places.
Verre Eglomise: French The mirror and picture framer, Glomy (d. 1786) A technique of applying silver or gold foil on the reversed, cut or engraved pattern, and backing the work with a red, blue, or black ground. It is also a term for a form of Zwischengold decorations for jewelry and medallions.
Verre Eglomise: French The mirror and picture framer, Glomy (d. 1786) A technique of applying silver or gold foil on the reversed, cut or engraved pattern, and backing the work with a red, blue, or black ground. It is also a term for a form of Zwischengold decorations for jewelry and medallions.
Verres a Serpents: French An often flat glass with etched gold or silver foil with cold color painting, perform on the reverse side of glass.
Verres a Serpents: French An often flat glass with etched gold or silver foil with cold color painting, perform on the reverse side of glass.
Verres a Serpents: French A term for "snake glass" and refers glass with stem with elaborate snakes or dragons.
Verres a Serpents: French A term for "snake glass" and refers glass with stem with elaborate snakes or dragons.
Verre Tachette: This glass was made by covering a parison of glass with spots of colored enamel and blowing it into objects.
Verre Tachette: This glass was made by covering a parison of glass with spots of colored enamel and blowing it into objects.
Vetro a fili, vetro a reticello, vetro a retorti: See filigrana.
Vetro a fili, vetro a reticello, vetro a retorti: See filigrana.
Victoria: A pressed glass pattern, made by Bakewell of Pittsburgh, that combines leaf shape, pointed oval with diamond zigzag bands.
Victoria: A pressed glass pattern, made by Bakewell of Pittsburgh, that combines leaf shape, pointed oval with diamond zigzag bands.
Viscosity: Stiffness. The amount of resistance to flow of a liquid, measured in centriposes, high viscosity liquids are stiff. Viscosity of glass increases with decreasing temperature, stiffening glass until below the strain point when glass acts as a solid.
Viscosity: Stiffness. The amount of resistance to flow of a liquid, measured in centriposes, high viscosity liquids are stiff. Viscosity of glass increases with decreasing temperature, stiffening glass until below the strain point when glass acts as a solid.
Viscosity Gradient: The gradation of the fluidity of glass. To exemplify the gradiant, a piece of hot glass on a rod is easiet to control when the glass is hottest and softest at the end away from the rod ; cooler and stiffer nearby the rod, the viscosity graduates. Cold or hot spot on a piece of glass destroys the gradient.
Viscosity Gradient: The gradation of the fluidity of glass. To exemplify the gradiant, a piece of hot glass on a rod is easiet to control when the glass is hottest and softest at the end away from the rod ; cooler and stiffer nearby the rod, the viscosity graduates. Cold or hot spot on a piece of glass destroys the gradient.
Violin Bottle: Blown molded bottles that have the shape of a violin.
Violin Bottle: Blown molded bottles that have the shape of a violin.
Viteous: A quality of glass, or resembling the nature of glass, a glassy state.
Viteous: A quality of glass, or resembling the nature of glass, a glassy state.
Vitrarius: The name of a glassblower, with different spellings derived from Latin.
Vitrarius: The name of a glassblower, with different spellings derived from Latin.
Vitreous Paint: Mixtures of: ground glass, pigments or metal oxide in a suspension. It is painted on glass that is fired, to fuse it onto the surface.
Vitreous Paint: Mixtures of: ground glass, pigments or metal oxide in a suspension. It is painted on glass that is fired, to fuse it onto the surface.
Vitric Panel: A glass pane which can be clear, cut engraved, frosted or otherwise decorated.
Vitric Panel: A glass pane which can be clear, cut engraved, frosted or otherwise decorated.
Vitro Di Trina: A Venetian glass having lacy threads of opaque white in transparent colored body. As a "modern" glass it may date from c. 1450. The style was produced in Roman glass factories.
Vitro Di Trina: A Venetian glass having lacy threads of opaque white in transparent colored body. As a "modern" glass it may date from c. 1450. The style was produced in Roman glass factories.
Vitro Porcelain: It is a pressed opaque creamy white glass with a high polish. The production by Sowerby & Neville Works, England is marked by a peacock head or star pressed into the glass..
Vitro Porcelain: It is a pressed opaque creamy white glass with a high polish. The production by Sowerby & Neville Works, England is marked by a peacock head or star pressed into the glass..
V - Wines: A reference to the shape of simple wineglasses with inverted conical bowls, and having a variety of stems.
V - Wines: A reference to the shape of simple wineglasses with inverted conical bowls, and having a variety of stems.
Volatile: The ability to evaporate or turn into a gaseous state. Examples are organic binders that creates fumes as they volatilize, necessitates venting.
-W-
Wafer Dish: See Tazza.
Waffle: Pressed glass pattern from Sandwich with the imprinted likeness of a waffle iron.
Waffle: Pressed glass pattern from Sandwich with the imprinted likeness of a waffle iron.
Waffle Cut: A set of broad perpendicular cuts on the base of paperweights.
Waffle Cut: A set of broad perpendicular cuts on the base of paperweights.
Waffle & Thumb Print: Pressed glass pattern of alternating panels of waffles and thumbprints made by the New England Glass Company.
Waffle & Thumb Print: Pressed glass pattern of alternating panels of waffles and thumbprints made by the New England Glass Company.
Waldglass: German, see forest glass.
Waldglass: German, see forest glass.
Wardian Case: Originally a flowers box with a glass bell cover. Later named Vivarium. Method of bringing plants back from distant lands, the glass bells created condensation that watered the plants contained within.
Wardian Case: Originally a flowers box with a glass bell cover. Later named Vivarium. Method of bringing plants back from distant lands, the glass bells created condensation that watered the plants contained within.
Warp: A result of improper annealing, or incompatible glasses, they are small bends or twist from the flat form of fused glass.
Warp: A result of improper annealing, or incompatible glasses, they are small bends or twist from the flat form of fused glass.
Warwick Glass: Glass made at the Warwick, Maine plant which was started as Franklin Glass Company in about 1812 or 1813 and operated to about 1820. Production included: bottles decanters jars plates pitchers off hand work
Warwick Glass: Glass made at the Warwick, Maine plant which was started as Franklin Glass Company in about 1812 or 1813 and operated to about 1820. Production included: bottles decanters jars plates pitchers off hand work
Washbowls: Dates range from 1750s to 1830s. Large blown bowls with wide rims for laving bowls of wash and toilet stands.
Washbowls: Dates range from 1750s to 1830s. Large blown bowls with wide rims for laving bowls of wash and toilet stands.
Washington: Pressed glass pattern made by the New England Glass Co., made from the 1860s. The design has chains of life-like elements forming arches over oval panels and upright tiers of three large thumbprints. The term Washington for this pattern may have originated with the maker who named patterns for American cities.
Washington: Pressed glass pattern made by the New England Glass Co., made from the 1860s. The design has chains of life-like elements forming arches over oval panels and upright tiers of three large thumbprints. The term Washington for this pattern may have originated with the maker who named patterns for American cities.
Washington Bust Bottle: Blown molded bitters bottles in the form of a bust of Washington and marked Simon's Centennial Bitters. Originals, in amber and clear glass have no pontil mark.
Washington Bust Bottle: Blown molded bitters bottles in the form of a bust of Washington and marked Simon's Centennial Bitters. Originals, in amber and clear glass have no pontil mark.
Washington Glass Works: Started at Williamstown, N.J., in 1839. Production included: bottles druggists' wares flasks vials
Washington Glass Works: Started at Williamstown, N.J., in 1839. Production included: bottles druggists' wares flasks vials
Washington Spring Bottle: Saratoga water bottle with the bust of Washington. Containers of the Washington Spring Co., Ballston Spa.
Washington Spring Bottle: Saratoga water bottle with the bust of Washington. Containers of the Washington Spring Co., Ballston Spa.
Watch Bottle; Whiskeybury Bottle: A novelty flask of four ounce capacity, bearing a paper label or glass covered panel having a watch dial and legend "WHISKEYBURY, " and sometime the phrase "Time to take a drink."
Watch Bottle; Whiskeybury Bottle: A novelty flask of four ounce capacity, bearing a paper label or glass covered panel having a watch dial and legend "WHISKEYBURY, " and sometime the phrase "Time to take a drink."
Watch Dish: Six inch in diameter pressed glass covered dish in the form of a watch with stem and openwork ring. The cover is impressed with dial and hands.
Watch Dish: Six inch in diameter pressed glass covered dish in the form of a watch with stem and openwork ring. The cover is impressed with dial and hands.
Water glass: See sodium silicate.
Water glass: See sodium silicate.
Water Sets: Stylish assemblies of glass trays, pitcher and glassware popular from the mid 1850 to the 1900s.
Water Sets: Stylish assemblies of glass trays, pitcher and glassware popular from the mid 1850 to the 1900s.
Wax: Beeswax is traditionally used to lubricate jacks to prevent scratching or marking the surface of hot glass when working with the tool.
-X-
Xanthine Glass: See silver in glass. Yellow glass, sometimes made by adding silver to glass.
-Y-
Yoke: Supports for blowpipes that are Y-shaped, often with ball bearing roller. Yokes give support at the glory hole while rotating the pipe.
-Z-
Zaffer: See cobalt.
Zanesville Glass: The White Glass Works (1815), later known as Shepard & Co., (1822) made this notable glass. Its bottles and vials were often mis-identified as 18th century glass, and is known for its hollow ware. Some historical flasks are marked "Zanesville, Ohio, Shepard & Co." New Granite Glass Works (1816) was known for bottles and flasks. Kearn established a plant (1840), assimilated others, making a diversity of glass.
Zanesville Glass: The White Glass Works (1815), later known as Shepard & Co., (1822) made this notable glass. Its bottles and vials were often mis-identified as 18th century glass, and is known for its hollow ware. Some historical flasks are marked "Zanesville, Ohio, Shepard & Co." New Granite Glass Works (1816) was known for bottles and flasks. Kearn established a plant (1840), assimilated others, making a diversity of glass.
Zanfirico: Italian A fancy cane often with spiral pattern or lace like elements inside.
Zanfirico: Italian A fancy cane often with spiral pattern or lace like elements inside.
Zantzinger, Paul: Zantzinger was a trustee of bankruptcy preceedings of the Seiegel Works of Manheim, (Lancaster Co.), Pa, of the 1770s. Zantzinger operatied the plants into the 1780s.
Zantzinger, Paul: Zantzinger was a trustee of bankruptcy preceedings of the Seiegel Works of Manheim, (Lancaster Co.), Pa, of the 1770s. Zantzinger operatied the plants into the 1780s.
Zimmerman, Joseph: Founded the Milford (or Pendelton), N. J. glassworks around 1849.
Zimmerman, Joseph: Founded the Milford (or Pendelton), N. J. glassworks around 1849.
Zuccarin: Italian See Kuttrolf Italian version of German Kuttrolf.
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